2017-12-31

Welcome !

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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- - - - - Welcome to the Heian Period of Japan !

The Heian period  平安時代 Heian jidai 
794 to 1185.


CLICK for more colorful photos !

Read the introduction here:
- - - WIKIPEDIA - - -


This blog also covers the history and culture until the Heian period:

Legendary Emperors (660 BC - 269 AD)
Kofun Period (270-539)
Asuka Period (539–710)

. Nara Period (710 to 794)  奈良時代 .

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Mosts of the material is preliminarily collected on my facebook page.
. Join - Heian Period - on Facebook ! .


Details of the period will be introduced.
The many legends of this period, including legends and haiku about it, will be introduced in more detail.

This BLOG also collects legends, tales and folklore of Japan.

Gabi Greve

. ABC List of Contents - Heian Period .


A Gallery of the Darumapedia, Daruma Museum Japan.

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- #heianperiod #legendsofjapan #heianjidai #folklore -
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2017-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真



. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise



. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. 2 Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).


. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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2017-02-18

Ichijo Tenno

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Ichijō-tennō, Ichijoo Tennoo 一条天皇 Emperor Ichijo
Emperor Ichijyo


- quote -
Emperor Ichijō 一条天皇 Ichijō-tennō, 
(July 15, 980 – July 25, 1011) was the 66th emperor of Japan,
according to the traditional order of succession.



Ichijō's reign spanned the years from 986 to 1011.

Before he ascended to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (imina) was Kanehito-shinnō.
Kanehito-shinnō was the first son of Emperor En'yū and Fujiwara no Senshi, a daughter of Fujiwara no Kaneie. Since there are no documented siblings, it is supposed that he was an only child.
Ichijō had five Empresses or Imperial consorts and five Imperial sons and daughters.
His reign coincided with the culmination of Heian period culture and the apex of the power of the Fujiwara clan.
In 984,
he was appointed as crown prince under 花山天皇 Emperor Kazan. It was rumored contemporarily that his maternal grandfather Kaneie plotted to have Kazan retire from the throne.
Ichijō ascended the throne at the age of six.
.....
Ichijō had two empress consorts. First was Teishi (or Fujiwara no Sadako), a daughter of Fujiwara no Michitaka, second was Shōshi (or Akiko), a daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga, a younger brother of Michitaka. Most people thought it impossible to have two empress consorts, but Michinaga claimed that the empress held two separate titles, Chūgū and Kōgō, which were different in principle and could therefore given to two different women.
The courts of both empresses were known as centers of culture.
Sei Shōnagon, author of The Pillow Book, was a lady in waiting to Teishi. Murasaki Shikibu was a lady in waiting to Shoshi. There were other famous poets in the courts of the empresses.
Ichijō loved literature and music.
For this reason, high ranked courtiers felt the necessity for their daughter to hold cultural salons with many skillful lady poets. Particularly he was fond of the flute. Ichijō was known for his temperate character and was beloved by his subjects.
.....
Ichijō is buried amongst the "Seven Imperial Tombs" at 竜安寺 Ryoan-ji Temple in Kyoto. The mound which commemorates the Emperor Ichijō is today named 衣笠山Kinugasa-yama. The emperor's burial place would have been quite humble in the period after Ichijo died.
.....
The years of Ichijō's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.
Eien 永延 (987–988)
Eiso 永祚 (988–990)
Shōryaku 正暦 (990–995)
Chōtoku 長徳 (995–999)
Chōhō 長保 (999–1004)
Kankō 寛弘 (1004–1012)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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. 瑠璃山 Rurizan 正光院 Temple Shoko-In .
港区元麻布3-2-20 / 3 Chome-2-20 Motoazabu, Minato ward, Tokyo

The main statue of this temple is
Koyasu Yakushi 子安薬師 Yakushi Nyorai to protect children

The statue was made by 恵心僧都 源信 Eshin Sozu Genshin in the middle Heian period, carved at the birth of 一条天皇 Ichijo Tenno with prayers for the baby to grow up healthy. This wooden statue was lost in WWII, the present statue is a gift from Mount Koyasan.

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. Tsubosakadera 壷阪寺 .



This Temple is the sixth of 33 scared place of Kannon in the West of Japan and the principal image Juichmen Kanzeon Bosatsu (Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy) enshrined in the Temple has been extensively worshipped as the goddess marvelously responsive to eye diseases.
Emperors Gensho, Ichijo and Kanmu and man other famous historical persons prayed for the recovery from their eye diseases.


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. Kani Yakushi 蟹薬師 "Crab Yakushi" .
大寺山願興寺 Daiji San, Ganko-Ji // Mitake no Kani Yakushi 御嵩の蟹薬師

closely related to the emperor Ichijoo Tennoo 一条天皇 Ichijo Tenno, when the annual festival 蟹薬師祭礼 started.

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. Shiba Daijinguu 芝大神宮 Shiba Daijingu .

Founded in 1005, by the Emperor Ichijoo Tennoo 一条天皇 Ichijo Tenno.

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----- A legend about this Tenno:

He was maybe the first "pet lover" in documented history.


source : ntt-card.com/trace

He had a cat which he loved very much. One day a dog chased the cat, so he banned the dog for a while from his view. Even when the dog was allowed to come back, he was so afraid of his master that he did not eat a thing.
Therefore the Tenno pardoned him explicitly and took him in his lap again. The happy dog soon begun to eat again.

. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

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- quote -
Emperor Ichijo 一条天皇 (Ichijou tennou)
Emperor Ichijô was an emperor of the Heian period, perhaps most well-known as being the reigning emperor during the composition of the Tale of Genji and Murasaki nikki by Murasaki Shikibu, and of The Pillow Book by Sei Shônagon. It was in Ichijô's court that much of the events related or referenced in these works took place.
A son of Emperor En'yû,
born in the Sanjô Palace and largely raised there by his grandfather Fujiwara no Kaneie, he succeeded to the throne upon the abdication of his uncle Emperor Kazan on 986/6/23. His accession ceremony was held on 7/22 that year. Ichijô's grandfather Fujiwara no Kaneie served as sesshô (regent for an emperor in his minority) from 986 until 990, and very briefly as kanpaku (regent for an adult emperor) following Ichijô's genpuku (coming of age) that year at the age of ten. Later that same year (990), Fujiwara no Michitaka took over as regent, holding the title of sesshô until 993 and then that of kanpaku until 995. Finally, Fujiwara no Michikane served as kanpaku briefly in 995.
He took Fujiwara no Akiko, a daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga, as his First Empress; she came to be known as Empress Shôshi. In 1000, he promoted Fujiwara no Sadako, also known as Empress Teishi, to First Empress, demoting Shôshi to Second Empress and creating considerable factional tension within the palace. As Murasaki Shikibu served Shôshi and Sei Shônagon served Teishi, this event contributed to rivalries between the two women which appear in their writings.
Ichijô abdicated the throne on 1011/6/13
in favor of his cousin, a son of Emperor Reizei, who took the throne as Emperor Sanjô. Ichijô then formally took the tonsure and entered retirement on 6/19, but died several days later on 1011/6/22.
One of his sons would later succeed Emperor Sanjô as Emperor Go-Ichijô.
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/ -

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- quote -
MUSIC AND RELIGION IN JAPAN
In the reign of the Emperor Ichijyo (r. 986–1011),
mikagura was performed in the Naishidokoro (Kashikodokoro) Palace to the accompaniment of kagurabue (a bamboo transverse flute), hichiriki (a double-reed pipe), and wagon.
- source : 2005 Thomson Gale -

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. Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .

. Murasaki Shikibu 紫式部 .

. Japanese History / The Middle Heian Period .

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一条天皇 (人物叢書) bu 倉本一宏

- Reference - 一条天皇 -

- Reference - Emperor Ichijo -
Emperor Go-Ichijō was the 68th emperor of Japan

- Reference - Emperor Ichijyo -
Abeno Seimei Shrine was reportedly built by the 66th Emperor Ichijyo in 1007.
There was a very clever girl who was a daughter of Emperor Ichijyo.
Ichijyo Modoribashi

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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- #ichijo #ichijotenno #ichijyo-
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2016-12-26

Totsukawa Legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Totsukawa / Totsugawa 十津川と伝説 Legends about Totsukawa village

- quote -
Totsukawa (十津川村 Totsukawa-mura) is a village located in Yoshino District, Nara Prefecture, Japan, along the Totsukawa river.
It's recognized as the largest village in Japan in terms of land area.
.....
Onsen - Hot Springs
Totsukawa has many natural onsen or hot springs. Tosenji hot spring in Totsukawa was put on the list of the best one hundred hot springs in Japan. The water from some of these hot springs is safe to drink. The source temperature of the water is about 70℃ and is also said to cure your cuts and burns. The hot springs in Totsukawa are unusual because the hot spring water is used, as is, directly from the source without reheating or recycling. Good onsen are said to keep you warm even long after bathing and many people claim this of the hot springs in Totsukawa.
There are also many footbaths in Totsukawa which are said to have health benefits for feet.
Footbaths in Totsukawa are free of charge.
- More in the Wikipedia -




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. Legends about Onsen Hot Springs 温泉と伝説 .
- Introduction -

Totsukawa Onsen 十津川温泉 Totsukawa Hot Spring
Nara Prefecture, Yoshino-gun, Totsukawa-mura Hiraya / 奈良県吉野郡十津川村平谷



En no Gyoja met a couple of Oni who were eating humans. He asked them not to do that any more but they did not listen to him. He hid in a cave but they wanted to give him human flesh to eat even there.
Now 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O comes along and pressured the couple not to eat humans any more. So they promised to change their ways.
Zenki went to 洞川 Dorogawa (now a famous hot spring), and Goki went to 十津川 Totsukawa .

. Zenkibō 前鬼坊 Zenkibo, Zenki-Bo .
his wife Goki 後鬼.

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Totsugawa Go 十津川郷 The Totsugawa Region
There are legends about serpents, cats, wolves and other animals.
Waterfalls also feature in these stories.

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When someone feels a buzzing and ringing in the ear, very soon a person of his/her age will die.

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hebi 蛇 serpent, snake // daija 大蛇 huge serpent

Sometimes villagers have sighted the bones of huge serpents.

The white serpent 白いグチナワ Guchinawa (Kuchinawa) is seen as a messenger of the Gods.

Once an old woman begun to venerate a white serpent near her home and soon the family became quite wealthy.

Once some forest workers saw a white serpent coming from between some rocks where they wanted to built a road. They became afraid and could not continue. They called a priest, had purification rites performed and then could continue the work.

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Many people have seen huge serpents, some with a body like a huge pumpkin and more than 3 meters long.

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After a strong typhoon, a tree had fallen right over the road. When they tried to remove the tree, it suddenly started to move all by it self!
Whow, it was a huge serpent !!

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Once the locals angered a serpent, but in revenge 50 serpents came along with their 蛇の親分 Serpent Oyabun Boss. So the people had to stop working and hold a ritual for the serpents.
Once there came a huge white serpent and a small white one along to live here. Rumors spread and no more workers came to help, even borrowing money became very expensive.

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At the waterfall 平内滝 Heinaitaki there live about 10 small serpents.
Some have seen a serpent wound around a human skull.

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Ryuujin 竜神 Dragon King
There is a huge hinoki 桧 Japanese cypress where the Dragon King lives. It is covered by thick fuji 藤 and kazura 葛 vines. If people break the vines, there is a strange sound. If this sound is heared, a 大蛇 huge serpent will appear.


- reference : 9 guchinawa legends -
7 kuchinawa くちなわ / クチナワ legends

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neko 猫 cat - monster cat

The waterfall from Nekoyoshi 猫良滝 is known as a place of the neko no kai 猫の怪 Monster Cat.



At the waterfall ネコマタの滝 猫又 Nekomata "Monster Cat Legs" a group of travellers once had to take a pee. The Cat Lord of the Waterfall got very angry about this and it started to rain in no time.

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Waterfalls along Totsukawa River



Sasa-no-taki (Waterfall of the Bamboo Grass) This waterfall was put on the list of 100 best waterfalls in Japan.
- - - - - Look at all the waterfalls here
- reference source : nps.ed.jp/totsukawa-hs/sub/yoshikuma -

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nozuchi 野槌 / tsuchinoko ツチノコ Hammerspawn
a legendary snake-like cryptid

Once there lived a large ノーヅチ Hammerspawn named 大八太郎 Daihachitaro.
An old woman was cutting weeds in the fields when some stones came flying along - or so she thought.
But in fact it was a Hammerspawn. - She got poisoned by its bite and died soon after.

. nozuchi 野槌 / tsuchinoko ツチノコ - Introduction .


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ookami 狼 wolf

If villagers have to go around to spread the word that someone has died, they always should go two of them. If for some reason only one can go, he must carry a knife ready to pull out of his breast pocket. This is a spell against being attacked by wolves.

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tanuki 狸 Tanuki, badger

Some villagers have been tricked by the Tanuki.
In the evening there was sand and stones thrown at them, but when they got after it calling 「おのれ、打ち殺すぞ」 "You beast, we are going to kill you", there was nothing.
Once they heard the sound of an ax felling a tree at lunchtime, but there was nobody. They could only feel the touch of a Tanuki.


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
64 十津川 to explore (21)

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● How the village Totsukawa got its name:
At the time when Tenmu Tenno 天武天皇 was still a prince called 大海人皇子 Oama no Miko and was hiding in Yoshina, he looked all the way South and sighed in grief:
「とほつかは」 tootsukawa

● How Mount Hatenashi 果無山 got its name :

In the Southwest of Totsukawa, near the border to 紀州 Kishu, Wakayama, there is a mountain range called Hatenashisan (Hate-nashi-san).
There was a busy road 上り下り七十二丁 up and down for about 8 kilometers for people to walk to Kumano.
But in the mountains lives an ogre called いっぽんだたら Ippondatara, with only one leg and eyes like huge plates.
Sometimes it brought harm to the farmers, but on the day hate no hatsuka ハテの廿日 (the day 20 of the 12th month) it was especially dangerous and people did not walk along the pass.
This is a pun: ハテナシ山 - On the day HATE there was no traffic (NASHI) - Mount Hatenashi.

. Obamine no Ipponashi 伯母峯 一本足 .
in in Wakayama, 北山村 Kitayama village.

● Tengu-ura 天狗崖 《てんぐうら》Tengu Cliff
At 高津 Takotsu the Totsukawa river runs through a gourge with steep cliffs, called Tengu-Ura.
There live some large and small Tengu. In autumn they all come here to enjoy the colored leaves.


. shichinin misaki 七人ミサキ Misaki of Seven People .
- a group of persons who died in an accident or in unnatural circumstances.
At 吉野郡十津川村榎谷 - 山天 Yamaten in olden times, 七人旅 seven travellers have died of hunger. Now they come out for revenge, if seven people travel along this road.
If a group has to travel here, they make sure to be six or eight people, never seven.

- reference source : 十津川村の伝説 -

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. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #totsukawa #totsukawanara -
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2016-12-20

Tengu no Ma - Legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Tengu no Ma 天狗の間 - 伝説 Legends about the Tengu Room
Tengu-no-ma - "Tengu's Room", Tengu (“Long-Nosed Goblin”) room


. Tengu 天狗と伝説 Tengu legends "Long-nosed Goblin" .
- Introduction -

- - - - -and konoshiro このしろ fish legends, see below

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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :


.......................................................................... Ishikawa 石川県 ......................................
羽咋村 Hakui

In the home of the 雄谷家 Oya family, there is Tengu Room. From time to time they hear the sound of drums and flutes from there.



.......................................................................... Nara 奈良県 ......................................
吉野郡 Yoshino district 野迫川村 Nosegawa vilage

At the pass 陣ヶ峰峠 Jingamine Toge there is the tea stall 天狗見茶屋 Tengumi Chaya with a room of 8 tatami mats, the Tengu no Ma 天狗の間 Tengu Room.
The son of this family, 仙太郎 Sentaro, was quite a Yakuza hanging around gambling. So the Tengu came to teach him a lesson and waited in front of the house.
But Sentaro did not listen to his sermon and instead invited him to come along gambling. The angry Tengu picked up the young man and threw him into the large Tengu Room. Sentaro was quite surprized, fell ill and soon died. That is how the room got its name.



.......................................................................... Shimane 島根県 ......................................

Tengu no ma no yuurei 天狗の間の幽霊 The Ghost of the Tengu Room



This room is located in the 5th floor of 松江城 Matsue castle.

Once upon a long time, the new lord of Matsue castle wanted to relax in the Tengu Room of the main castle tower.
Suddenly a lovely maiden with a robe from the Heian period came right out of the back wall.
The lady told the lord:
"This castle (konoshiro) belongs to me. I want to have it back. Please leave here at once!"

The young lord soon realized that this was something quite unusual and thought about it for a while. Then he told the maiden:
"If you want (kono shiro この城) this castle so much, I will give it to you. Please wait here for a while!"

He left the Tengu Room and went to the local fishermen to get some fish, which was called
konoshiro コノシロ (Konosirus punctatus).



But the fishermen were too afraid to walk up to the Tengu Room.
So the lord said:
"Well, then, I will bring her the fish!"
As he said so, a young retainer called 久弥 Kyuya came up and said:
"I will carry it up to the Tengu Room."



Kyuya placed the fish on a 三方 ritual tray for Shinto offerings and then went up all the stairs to the castle tower to the Tengu Room.
Nobody was in the room when Kyuya placed the tray with the fish on the ground.
Then the lovely maiden with a robe from the Heian period came out of the back wall.
She looked quite puzzled at the tray: "What is this supposed to be?"
Kyuya answered:
"This is Konoshiro, a fish. So please accept it as promised."
The lady hesitated.
"Please, accept the offering!" Kyuya insisted.
So she took the tray.
Indeed, the young Lord had succeeded in fooling the maiden and keeping her promise.


- - - - - Tengu no Ma, the Tengu Room

Next morning Kyuya found the tray near the central Honmaru building of the castle.
And the Lovely Lady was never seen again.
She had been a "human offering" when the castle was built. By mistake not a girl from the village but the daughter of the first owner of the castle had been burried.


. hitobashira 人柱 "human pillar" - human sacrifice .
- Introduction -

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- Matsuo Basho, Oku no Hosomichi 奥の細道:
"I went to see the shrine of Muronoyashima. According to Sora, my companion, this shrine is dedicated to the goddess called the Lady of the Flower-Bearing Trees, who has another shrine at the foot of Mt.Fuji. This goddess is said to have locked herself up in a burning cell to prove the divine nature of her newly-conceived son when her husband doubted it. As a result, her son was named the Lord Born Out of the Fire, and her shrine, Muro-no-yashima, which means a burning cell.
It was the custom of this place for poets to sing of the rising smoke, and for ordinary people not to eat
このしろといふ魚 konoshiro, a speckled fish, which has a vile smell when burnt."

"Pay our respects to the Muro-no-Yashima Shrine.
Companion Sora relates: "The goddess here, Princess Konohanasakuya, is the same as at Mt. Fuji. She set fire to the birthing hut in proof of her wedding vows, so this place graced with the birth of Prince Hohodemi, and, from this, the shrine is called Muro-no-Yashima.
This is why the reading of smoke is practiced here."

They say that this fish when cooked gives off the smell of burning human flesh and therefore is associated with the Lady of the Flowerbearing Trees. This is also why people are forbidden to eat this fish.

. Station 4 - Muronoyashima, Muro no Yashima 室の八嶋 .

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. WASHOKU - Japanese Food Saijiki .

shad, gizzard shad, spotted shad 鮗 (このしろ)
Konosirus punctatus, Clupanodon punctatus

- kigo for all autumn -

shinko しんこ/ シンコ(新子) the smallest kohada fish
kohada 小鰭(こはだ) the bigger fish
konoshiro このしろ the grown fish

By changing its name, this fish is a typical "career fish" (shusse sakana) and thus auspicious for festival food.

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

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愛媛県 Ehime 西条市 Saijo

Children which are born in an unusual position should not eat Konoshiro fish all their life long.

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香川県 Kagawa 三豊郡 Mitoyo district 高瀬町 Takase

At the shrine 日枝神社 Hie Jinja the fish Konoshiro is used as a kind of amulet to avoid disaster and crying at night by children.
This also holds for children born in the year Showa 24, 25 and 52.
.
If a healthy person all of a sudden and for no good reason looses his health, it will often find an unusual death.
People can use the fish Konoshiro as an offering to avoid disaster. It is best to see the Shrine priest, because he can take a look at the face and make an apropirate diagnosis.

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database このしろ -

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江戸橋や鮗(このしろ)つもるふじの雪
Edobashi ya konoshiro tsumoru fuji no yuki

Edobashi bridge !
the snow of Mount Fuji
heaps up on Konoshiro fish


錐水 / 江戸弁慶 Edo Benkei / "Edo's tough men"
A haikai anthology compiled by Ikenishi Gonsui, 1680.

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すゞし江に鮗をうつ竿の露
suzushie ni konoshiro o utsu sao no tsuyu

加舎白雄 Kaya Shirao (1738 – 1791)

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. Osakabe no kami おさかべの神 at Himeji Castle .
Osakabe no Miko, a Yokai 妖怪 monster.


source : emmastyle.jp/articles/detail


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At 横川の大師 the Temple of Yokawa Daishi at Mount Hieizan, there is a Tengu Room. It is locked up with nails on all four sides.
Sometimes people can hear the sound of wings flapping inside.

. Myoogu, Myōgu 明救 Priest Myogu, Hieizan .
Tenjiku Tengu 天竺天狗 The Tengu from India, turned human.

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横浜を愛した昭和の文豪「大佛次郎 天狗の間 今昔散歩」
The famous author Daibutsu Jiro loved Yokohama.

. 大佛次郎 Daibutsu Jiro (1897 - 1973) .

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
- reference : "天狗の間" -

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. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #tengunoma #tenguroom #konoshiro -
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2016-10-12

Tengu Tengo Toyama

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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tengo テンゴ と伝説 Legends about Tengu
Tengosama, Tengu sama テンゴサマ / Tengohan, Tengo han (san) テンゴハン
Tengu 天狗 in the dialect of Toyama and other prefectures



Many Tengu live or take a rest in big cedar trees:
. Tengu, sugi 天狗と杉と伝説 Legends about Tengu and Cedar trees .
- Introduction -

About the 立山信仰 Tateyama belief, see below.
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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Toyama 富山県 ......................................



The Tengu Tateyama Shijooboo 立山縄乗坊 / (しじょうぼう) Shijo-Bo, Shijobo
Joosuiboo ジョウスイボウ Josui-Bo, Josuibo (another name quoted for this Tengu)

He lived in the 立山連峰 (館山連峰) Tateyama Mountain Range. He used to throw stones at mountain climbers in the remote region, who did not show enough respect for the Mountain Religion or are self-conceited.
But now with the many modern climbers, he is not seen any more.

立山の天狗伝説 Tengu Legend of Tateyama
The 弥陀ヶ原東部の溶岩台地 stone formation at Midagahara is called
Tengudaira 天狗平.
To the South is Mount Tenguyama 天狗山.

In a story from 1821, 甲子夜話 Kassha yawa, there is mention of a person from 千葉県上総 Chiba named 源左衛門 Genzaemon , who had been abducted by a Tengu. He was taken to a cave in the Tateyama Mountain. (The cave is said to lead all the way to 石川県の白山 Mount Hakusan in Ishikawa.)

Amida Nyorai in its Shinto version as Tateyama Gongen 立山権現などと、
The main deities are
伊邪那岐命 / イザナギ Izanagi no Mikoto (as Amida)
and
刀尾天神 Tachio Tenjin (as 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O).
He is also known as Tajikarao no Mikoto 手力雄命(たぢからおのみこと).

佐伯有頼 Saeki no Ariyori ca. 8th century, was the first to climb this mountain.
He was later called Jikoo Shoonin 慈興上人 Saint Jiko Shonin.
He was a nephew of Saeki Ariwaka
- reference source : toki.moo.jp/gaten 189 -


source : www2.tkc.pref.toyama.jp/general
Statue of Jiko Shonin, founder of Shrine 雄山神社 Oyama Jinja


立山室堂の天狗集会 Meeting of the Tengu at Tateyama Murodo
ここには数千もの天狗がおり、それを立山の天狗の首領縄乗坊大天狗が仕切っているといいます。
There lived more than a few thousand Tengu in the Tateyama mountains, and Shijo-Bo was their leader.
..... During a meeting of eleven of these Tengu and Yamabushi they placed Genzaemon on the main seat of honor and called him
権現 Gongen (Honorable incarnation of the Buddha).
They had drinks and sweets. (Tengu are rarely seen eating or drinking.) They made ritual music and danced.
To our times, the Murodo of Tateyama is a favorite place of the mountain climbers.
- reference source : toki.moo.jp/gaten 495 -

This Tengu is one of the
. 四十八天狗 48 Tengu of Japan .

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CLICK for more photos !

The three peaks of Tateyama Sanzan 立山三山:
Ōnanjiyama (大汝山, 3,015m), Oyama (雄山, 3,003m "Male Mountain"), and
Fuji no Oritateyama (富士ノ折立, 2,999m).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Tachio Jinja 刀尾神社 Tachio Shrine
富山県富山市中市一丁目4番48号 / Toyama Town



Deity in residence :
田力男命 (たぢからおのみこと) Tajikarao no Mikoto
and
刀尾天神 Tachio Tenjin / 刀尾権現 Tachio Gongen
- - - - - HP of the Shrine
- reference source : ki43.on.coocan.jp/injapan -


Ame-no-tajikarao (アメノタジカラオ) 天手力男神 / 天手力雄神 Ame no Tajikarao no Kami
A kami whose name means "heaven-hand-power."
He pulled Amaterasu out of the "rock cave of heaven" ...
- source: kokugakuin Kadoya Atsushi, 2005


. Izanagi 伊弉諾 and Izanami 伊邪那美命.
The Creation Myth of Japan

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東砺波郡 Higashitonami district 井波町 Inami
Tengosama テンゴサマ

The Tengu who lived in the 一本杉 One Cedar Tree came to the family who lived nearby and asked them to prepare some festival food because he had some friends coming over that night.
They arranged everything in their living room and closed the doors.
They could hear voices and laughing. After a while all went quiet and they opened the door again. All the food was spilled on the table and floor.

The house was kind of cursed and when people passed by, someone threw stones at them from above.
The son of the family was possessed by a Tengu, they say.

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小矢部市 Oyabe

sugi 杉 cedar tree
Once they cut the cedar tree, the home of the Tengu. Blood begun to flow from the cut and they never tried to cut that tree again.
It might have been the curse of the Tengu 天狗の祟り (Tengu no tatari).

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下新川郡 Shimoniigawa district大家庄村 Oienosho

大杉 big cedar tree
At the temple Kooeiji 光栄寺 Koei-Ji in Oenosho sometimes sometimes flames were seen but there was nothing burning. So people wondered if there was a Tengu living in the big cedar in the compound. Sometimes the tatami mats were lifted up or the rain doors take off. Sometimes something strange floated in the bath.
Once a female voice was heard asking for paper and pen. So when the villagers placed it outside, some letters were written on the paper.

Kooeiji 光栄寺 Koei-Ji
241 Oienosho, Asahi, Shimoniikawa District, Toyama
The main statue is 阿弥陀如来 Amida Nyorai.

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礪波市 Tonami town

Aragansama, Aragan sama 荒神様 / アラガンサマ "Wild Deity"
is another name for the Tengosama.
He is a kind of ma no hito 魔の人 demon.
When people meet him doing his 剣術の稽古 exercises in sword fighting, they will be injured.

. Koojin sama 荒神様 Kojin sama, Aragamisama .
a kind of Kamagami 釜神 Hearth Deity in the kitchen.

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Tengosama is a huge person, becoming invisible by the power of his magic cloak.
If children play outside until late in the evening, he will come and abduct them.
This is one form of kamikakushi 神隠し "being spirited away".
Sometimes children are bewitched and will eat horse apples, thinking it is Tofu bean curd.

. Tengu no Kakuremino 天狗の隠れみの The Tengu's Magic Cloak .
- Folktale -

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The Tengu resides in ipponsugi 一本杉 a single cedar tree, 巨松 a huge pine tree and in 大杉 a huge cedar tree. He also resides in other 巨木 huge trees in the forest of a shrine.
From the Ipponsugi sometimes the sound of a big drum can be heard. This is the Tengu hitting the drum.

He likes trees best which have a round bump on the trunk.

When people have to cut trees in a Shrine forest for special reasons, they fear the curse of the pine tree and leave one standing. This is the
Tengosugi, Tengo-Sugi テンゴ杉 Tengu Cedar Tree.

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Tengosama likes to spend money.
If he has borrowed money once, he will pay it back by borrowing from someone else.

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Tengosama likes to follow people who walk alone at night. When they turn round and see his long nose, they become afraid and begin to chant the Amida Buddha prayer. Some people even become more strong in their religious belief in Amida after such an experience.

. Namu Amida Butsu 南無阿弥陀仏 the Amida Prayer .

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To prevent Tengosama to come into a newly constructed home, people have to place an amulet to ward off evil at the entrance 魔除け.
If they do not do it, the Tengosama will come at night, make terrible noise and prevent them from sleeping.

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Tengosama lives in the ceiling of a house and makes noise, but he never shows his figure.
If the noises suddenly stop, this family will certainly fall into decline.

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Tengosama makes noise like big drum or like cutting bamboo. Some people can hear the difference.
Sometimes he makes the noise of a festival music with drums and flutes at midnight.
If people hear this during a war, they will win.
During the Second World War this noise was never heard, so the war was lost.

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Once a man came to a Sake rice wine shop and asked to have his bottle filled. After it was filled with 一升 one SHO (about 1.8 liters), the man asked for one more Sho, and then one more. The shop owner kept pooring and all fit into the small bottle.
When the visitor left the shop, the owner followed him outside, but the man just became invisible. So it must have been a Tengu.
They say a Sake shop where a Tengu comes to consume must be a very good Sake indeed.

Tengu sake 天狗酒 Tengu rice wine



. sake 天狗 酒 Tengu Sake rice wine brands - .

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tojikomerareta Tengu とじこめられた天狗 a Tengu in confinement  
富山市大久保 Toyama city, Okubo

At the temple Hoorinji 法林寺 Horin-Ji in Okubo there was one extra large 松 pine tree.
At night there was often a special wind blowing - ゴウッー goooon - and the branches rattled バサッ、バサッ pasapasa and even now people avoid to pass here at night.
This huge pine tree was the residence of a Tengu since olden times. He threw stones on the roof at night - バラバラバラット paraparaparaa - and disturbed the people, preventing them from sleeping.
This Tengu also abducted children for two or three days and was a great nuisance to the villagers.



In the Meiji period, a new stone fence was built at the temple.
And then one evening, the Tengu appeared in a dream of the priest:
"Why did you built a stone wall around the pine tree where I live? Why are you trying to confine me there, making live miserable for me?"
"The temple can built a stone wall anywhere it likes, and you are not to complain about it. We should ask you to pay a rent for living here. It is up to you, whether we will remove the stone wall or not!"
The Tengu pleaded with the priest for a while and finally they came to an agreement:
The Tengu would not play tricks on the villagers and protect them from now on. Thus the stone wall around the tree was removed and all was fine from now on.
- reference source : kimamanatabibito.blog97.fc2.com -

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Tateyama shinkoo, Tateyama Shinkō 立山信仰 Tateyama mountain worship

- quote -
Beliefs and practices surrounding Tateyama, the composite name given to a series of peaks found in Toyama Prefecture, the highest of which is Ōnanjiyama (3015 m.).
Along with Hakusan it was an important Shugendō site and sacred mountain in the central western coastal region. The main peak is Oyama, whose kami, Oyama no kami, is mentioned in the Manyōshū; this deity is also known as Tateyama no kami and Tateyama Gongen.

According to the Ruiju kigenshō (late Kamakura period), its founder was an unknown hunter. Later legendary histories and the picture scroll known as the Tateyama Mandara say that Saeki Ariyori, a nephew of Saeki Ariwaka, the administrator of Etchū Province (present-day Toyama Prefecture), borrowed his father's white hawk and went hunting in the mountains. There he shot a bear, which changed into Amida. Ariyori received the Buddhist precepts and the religious name of Jikō. 慈興上人 Saint Jiko Shonin.

The original Buddhist form (honji) of Tateyama Gongen was Amida, and under the influence of Pure Land beliefs, there was a strong idea that the mountain was Amida's Pure Land of Sukhavati. There was also a cult attached to the area around Jigokudani ("Hell Valley"); the forbidding landscape was dotted with pools of boiling mud which were thought to represent hell, while volcanic pools were regarded specifically as the
Pool of Blood Hell, and it was here that wrongdoers were said to go after death.
The Hokke genki (by Chingen, 1040-43) and the Konjaku monogatari (late Heian period) contain tales of women who fell into hell at Tateyama and who attained salvation when their parents copied out sutras.
Beliefs in hell and paradise were probably spread by shugen practitioners, hijiri and bikuni (female itinerant religious figures).
In the Edo period, Tateyama was made up of seven shrines and 24 temples, of which the most important were the Kamimiya on the summit of Oyama ( Oyama Jinja 雄山神社), the middle shrine at 芦峅寺 Ashikuraji, and the outer shrine and front building at 岩峅寺 Iwakuraji. Ashikuraji and Iwakuraji, which stand on the 常願寺川 Jōganji River, flowing down from Tateyama, were the two main Shugendō centers.

Shugen priests from here ran pilgrims' lodgings, guided pilgrims to Tateyama (Tateyama chūgo) and climbed the sacred peaks (Tateyama zenjō). During this time Iwakuraji had more than twenty shugen subtemples and supervised the greater part of the area of Tateyama. It extracted fees from pilgrims to stay at the Murodō and to climb the mountain (yamayakusen). When buildings were to be repaired or reconstructed, shugen priests would conduct canvassing campaigns in nearby provinces, centering on touring holy images.

Ashikuraji had around 30 subtemples, of which the Ubadō and the Enmadō were the most important. Parishioners were acquired throughout the country and the Tateyama cult was spread mainly through canvassing campaigns. Confraternities (kō) were established in the parishes (dannaba) and every year the protective talismans of the gongen would be distributed there and those members who would next make pilgrimage to the mountain decided.

Copies of the Menstruation Sutra (Ketsubonkyō) were also distributed, as a means of female salvation, as were various medicines such as the Tateyama gentian (rindō), yunokusa, kumanoi and wild carrot, all remedies for stomach complaints. This is considered to have been the origin of the famous Toyama medicine peddlers.

Shugen priests would also take with them on their parish visitations copies of the Tateyama Mandara and explain through them the sufferings of the hells and the nature of the gongen's saving powers. Mandara in the Ashikuraji tradition emphasized the rite called the Nunohashi Consecration which took place at the Ubadō and the Enmadō. Here, at the time of the autumn equinox, a white cloth (nuno) was spread over the bridge connecting these two halls; hence the bridge was known as Nunohashi ("cloth bridge"), and also as the Bridge of Heaven.

It was only at this one time in the year, on the middle day of the autumn equinox, that women were allowed to enter the precincts, normally forbidden them, as far as the Ubadō, from where, having received the protection of the deity Ubagami, they worshipped the sacred mountain and prayed for rebirth in paradise. The rite was an enactment of death and rebirth. After the rite, pieces of the white cloth that had been spread over the bridge were distributed among believers as burial shrouds.

Until the separation of buddhas and kami (shinbutsu bunri) in the early Meiji period, the main image of the Ubadō was an Uba (kami in the form of an old woman) triad and there were also 66 Uba statues, each representing one of the 66 provinces of Japan. They retained features of the kami of the mountains (yama no kami). Thus, though Tateyama was closed to women and place names in the area, such as Ubaishi ("old woman's stone"), Bijosugi ("cedar of the beautiful woman") and Kamurosugi ("maiden's cedar"), recall legends related to this taboo, it also fostered a belief in female salvation.

After the separation of buddhas and kami, Iwakuraji became Oyama Shrine, and Ashikuraji became an auxiliary shrine called Ōmiya Wakamiya.
Shugendō was abolished.
- source : Suzuki Masataka Kokugakuin 2007-


TATEYAMA MANDARA - Tateyama Mandala
TATEYAMA Jigoku-Dani - Hell Valley
- read more at : Mark Schumacher -




Oyama Jinja Torii gate

Ashikuraji, Oyama Jinja and Iwakuraji
- source : en.japantravel.com/toyama/ashikuraji -

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. Medicine sellers from Toyama 富山の薬売り - Introduction .

. Mingei - Folk art from Toyama 富山県 .

. Food specialities from Toyama 富山県 .


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.......................................................................... Kanagawa 神奈川県 ......................................

tengoosama テンゴーサマ Tengoo Sama

A tengu lived at the river crossing and people were not supposed to walk along there at night. If anyone did, the 楢の木 oak trees on both sides of the road would start walking toward the middle of the road and block it. That was the deed of a Tengu. If people apologized, the Tengu would stop the wind and they could climb the slope.
The old people venerated the Tengu as Tengoo Sama.


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津久井郡 Tsukui district

Once two brothers were thowing their fishing nets out along the river of 三沢村 Misawa village. They caught a lot of ayu 鮎 trout. To make sure the Tengu would not be jealous of their catch, they opened three fish, cleaned them and put them on the lid of the fish trap.
Once the Tengu was not pleased and a 火の玉 huge ball of fire came down on their boat. They were afraid and rushed home.
But this was, most probably, not a Tengu but a
. kawauso 獺魚 / カワウソ river otter .


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Tengonboo 天狗坊 / テンゴンボー Tengon Bo, Tengo'n Bo

If someone is fishing at the 天狗坊渕 Tengonbo-buchi pool and suddenly begins to mumble Tengo-bo, Tengon-Bo . . all the fish he has caught till now will then turn into tree leaves.



.......................................................................... Nagano 長野県  ......................................
松本市 Matsumoto

Tengosue, Tengo sue テンゴスエ Tengo Sue

Once a man named Sue had been abducted by a Tengu. But he was let gone free with the promise that the Tengu would be back next year at the last day of Next Year. With these words the Tengu threw him on the large 松の木 pine tree in front of his home. Due to the protection of the deities, he was not injured at all.
Since that event, the villagers called him テンゴスエ Tengo Sue.


.......................................................................... Saitama 埼玉県  ......................................
秩父 Chichibu

Tengoo matsuri 天狗祭(テンゴー祭り) Tengo (Tengu) Festival
Tengu is seen as yama no kami 山の神 a Deity of the Mountain
During the festival people pray for safety while working in the mountain forest and blessings for the family.
The main actors of this festival are children.

原の天狗まつり Hara no Tengu Matsuri
秩父市荒川白久(原区)地内 In Hara village



This festival was held in many parts of Chichibu, but now only in the Hara village.
The young boys collect wood, bamboo and leaves to prepare for a huge ritual bonfire.
The sounds of the huge fire,
パチパチ、パンパン、バリバリ pachi pachi, pan pan, pari pari
The Tengo sama is venerated as Hibuse no Kami 火防の神 Deity to prevent fire, also as the Yama no Kami 山の神 Deity of the Mountain and the pillow of this Tengo is on top of the mountain.
- reference source : navi.city.chichibu.lg.jp -


.......................................................................... Yamanashi 山梨県  ......................................
芦川村 Ashigawa

One of the villagers of Ashigawa had been abducted by a Tengoo San オテンゴウサン Tengu.
All villagers walked around the mountain forest, hitting gongs and searching for the man, but they did not find him. Then a few days later they found him hanging on a rack for pumpkins, sleeping.
He woke up and told them he had been walking around with a Tengu, throwing Mochi rice cakes at people.
In this district, people who build a new home have a special ritual where these Mochi are thrown from the gables to appease the Deity of the Mountain. So this was a Tengu after all.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #tengosama #tengotengu #tengotoyama #Toyamatengo -
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