2017-12-31

Welcome !

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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- - - - - Welcome to the Heian Period of Japan !

The Heian period  平安時代 Heian jidai 
794 to 1185.


CLICK for more colorful photos !

Read the introduction here:
- - - WIKIPEDIA - - -


This blog also covers the history and culture until the Heian period:

Legendary Emperors (660 BC - 269 AD)
Kofun Period (270-539)
Asuka Period (539–710)

. Nara Period (710 to 794)  奈良時代 .

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Mosts of the material is preliminarily collected on my facebook page.
. Join - Heian Period - on Facebook ! .


Details of the period will be introduced.
The many legends of this period, including legends and haiku about it, will be introduced in more detail.

This BLOG also collects legends, tales and folklore of Japan.

Gabi Greve

. ABC List of Contents - Heian Period .


A Gallery of the Darumapedia, Daruma Museum Japan.

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .


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- #heianperiod #legendsofjapan #heianjidai #folklore -
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2017-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, he oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真



. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise



. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).


. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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2017-05-06

wolf okuri okami legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
. ookami 狼 伝説 Okami, wolf legends .
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okuri ookami 送り狼 "a wolf following someone"

. madoo 魔道 - まどう Mado, road where monsters pass .
ma no toorimichi 魔の通り道 / mamono no toorimichi 魔物の通り道
masuji, ma-suji 魔筋 // nawasuji, nawa-suji 縄筋

- Introduction -



source : dostoev.exblog.jp

okuri ookami 送り狼 "a wolf following someone"
If people walk alone on a lonely mountain road,
sometimes they hear a strange sound like a tail hitting the ground and think, a monster wolf is following them.
In that case they should never turn around to have a look. Wolves often follow women, but sometimes also men.
And there are wolves which are kind and helpful at night.
This monster wolf is especially active at sunset. People call the twilight time オオマガトキ ooma ga toki.

If people begin to whistle there will be even more Mamono monsters gathering in the area.
Children have to be especially careful.


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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Okayama 岡山県 ......................................

In Maniwa, 落合町 Ochiai, in the hamlet 栗原 Kurihara there was a woman walking along 城山 Shiroyama, Monster Road, to the next village, when a monster wolf was following her. She went straight home in a hurry, never daring to even look left or right. When she reached home and shut the main gate, she could see two eyes glowing outside and staring at her, then slowly disappearing.


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
55 to explore (02)
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. ookami 狼 伝説 Okami, wolf legends - wolves .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #okuriokami #wolflegends #okamiwolf -
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2017-05-04

matagi bear hunter legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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matagi 又鬼 - マタギ と伝説 Legends about bear hunters

mata oni ni naru 又鬼 "I have to become a demon again" . . . matagi . . .
The matagi hunter only takes life when it is absolutely necessary to support his life and the forest. He apologizes to the forest for taking life, prays for the soul of the dead animal and gives thanks to the circle of mountain life.

Many Matagi live in Ani town in Akita. 秋田県阿仁

. matagi 又鬼 - マタギ bear hunters .
- Introduction -



マタギ奇談 - 狩人たちの奇妙な語り
工藤隆雄 Eto Takao

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越後三面山人記 - マタギの自然観に習う
田口洋美 Taguchi Hiromi

日本の狩猟文化研究の第一人者、東北芸術工科大学教授兼狩猟文化研究所所長・田口洋美氏の若き日の意欲作、隠れたロングセラーを文庫化。
朝日連峰の山懐、新潟県の三面川(みおもてがわ)中流の深い谷間にあった三面集落。
今は三面ダムの底に沈んだこの山里の狩猟文化・山村習俗を、四季折々の山の民の暮らしを追うかたちで詳細に記録した、著者若き日の意欲作。
第一章 狩りの日の出来事
第二章 降りしきる雪の中で-冬-
第三章 山の鼓動とともに-春-
第四章 むせるような緑に抱かれて-夏-
第五章 時雨れる雲ノ下で-秋-
第六章 山人の自然学



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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Akita 秋田県 ......................................

kodama nezumi コダマ鼠 / 小玉鼠 Kodama Nezumi Yokai monster - Little Ball Rat


source : twitter.com/meirojp/status

It is feared by the Matagi of Akita, especially in Ani. Some say it evolved from seven Matagi who died the same day during a hunting accident.
If the rat hears the sound of a gun, it will rush to the spot and interfere with the hunting. When it spots a human, it stops what it's doing, inflates like a balloon, explodes and splatters the hunter with its own blood and guts.
If the hunters become aware of one, the Matagi will retreat from the mountain as fast as they can.

- reference : kodama nezumi yokai -

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Once upon a time in winter
a group of seven young Matagi went to the mountain forest. At night it begun to snow. On the second morning a young woman came to their hut and asked to be allowed to take shelter. On that night, the woman sucked the soul out of six of them and killed them. The last one woke up in time, took his hatched and chased the monster away.

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kakesu カケス / 橿鳥 / 懸巣 jay, Garrulus glandarius
If the jay make a racket, it will certainly rain. The Matagi pay attention to them.

.......................................................................
北秋田郡 阿仁町 Ani

Once their was a Matagi family wanting for food. Just then Kobo Daishi passed their hut and they wanted to take away his robes. He tried to understand their plight and told them, "Even if you now repent,
mata oni ni naru - you will become Oni again!
Hunting is your job, so go ahead and do it."
This is the origin of their name.
.
Yamagami no sakabu 山神のサカブ(叫び)は細く硬い声で、遠いところで響く鉦の音に似ている。女の声にも似ているが少し違う。明治30何年かに、この声で7尺5寸もある大きな熊を発見して捕ったことがあったという。

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鹿角郡 Katsuno district 小坂町

iwana 岩魚
昔柴内という村の八郎 Hachiro というマタギが、仲間と共に奥瀬山に入った時、雪溶け水に泳ぐ岩魚を救って食べた。するとあんまり喉が渇き、持っていたワッパで飲んでも間に合わず、腹ばいして鯨飲しているうちにその身が蛇身と化し、遂に十和田湖へ飛び込んで主となったという。

.......................................................................
仙北郡 Senboku district 角館町 Kakunodate

If the mice are disappearing from a Matagi's mountain hut, they know that something is amiss and disaster looming.
.
若い狩人(マタギ)が生け捕った猿を逃がしてやった。すると、猿は大勢の仲間と共に苺や栗をお礼に持ってきた。
.
マタギが雪崩にあい、埋まっていたが、その頃村の人たちはマタギの一行が肩に小長柄を担いで山から下りる姿を見た。幽霊であった。小長柄を肩に担ぐと雪崩にあうと言われている。

.
女房が親父の仕事をしている山へ弁当を届に行ったら山の神 Yama no Kami の怒りに触れて木の下敷きになり死んだ。

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山本郡 Yamamoto district 藤里町

マタギが猟をしている間、炊事当番の小僧のところに山人 Yamahito が来る。次の日、マタギが巻物を小刀で追い払った。山人が去る時には大荒になった。

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bears and hunters enjoying a break
野間仁根色紙 painting by Noma Hitone


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.......................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県 ......................................

マタギの家では寒三十日の間は決して豆を煎らない。豆を煎ったとき豆の跳ねる音がすると、その響きで山に雪崩が起きるという。また、節分の日に豆を煎り、その豆を食べて山へ出かけると災難に遭わず、その豆を山に持参すると災厄を除くという。

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仙台市 Sendai 太白区 Taihaku

. The brothers 万二万三郎 Banji and Banzaburo and the matagi マタギ hunters of Nikko. .


24 more legends from Miyagi

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
マタギ 49 to explore (02)
Akita 12 0K




Nametoko yama no kuma なめとこ山の熊 The bears of Nametoko Mountain
宮沢賢治 Miyazawa Kenji

..............................................................................................................................................


. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #matagi #bearhunter -
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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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2017-04-20

Soga Iruka Emishi

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Soga no Emishi 蘇我蝦夷 and Iruka 蘇我入鹿 と伝説 Legends
Soga no uji 蘇我氏 the Soga clan





- quote -
Soga no Emishi 蘇我蝦夷 (587 – July 11, 645)
was a statesman of the Yamato Imperial Court. His alternative names include Emishi (毛人) and Toyoura no Ōomi (豊浦大臣). After the death of his father Soga no Umako, Emishi took over Ōomi, the Minister of state, from his father.
According to the Nihonshoki,
from the end of the reign of Empress Suiko to that of Empress Kōgyoku, Emishi enjoyed influence in the court. After the death of Empress Suiko, Emishi succeeded in installing Prince Tamura on the throne as Emperor Jomei by citing the will of Empress Suiko. Although Prince Yamashiro was another candidate, Emishi murdered Sakaibe no Marise, his uncle who nominated Oe no Ou, paving the way for his favorite. After the discernment of Emperor Jomei, Emishi supported Empress Kōgyoku.
His daughter, Soga no Tetsuki no Iratsume, was a wife of Emperor Jomei and bore Emperor Jomei one daughter Princess Yata.
In 645, when his son Iruka was murdered in front of the Empress, Emishi committed suicide the next day.
- source : wikipedia -

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- quote -
Soga no Iruka 蘇我入鹿 (? - July 10, 645)
was the son of Soga no Emishi a statesman in the Asuka Period of Japan.



He was assassinated at court in a coup d'état involving Nakatomi no Kamatari and Prince Naka-no-Ōe ("Isshi no hen" 乙巳の変; Murder in the Year of Isshi - Isshi Incident), who accused him of trying to murder Prince Yamashiro, a charge which Soga no Iruka denied.
Soga no Emishi also committed suicide soon after his son's death, and the main branch of the Soga clan became extinct. Prince Naka-no-Oe latter ascended the throne as Emperor Tenji, and Nakatomi no Kamatari was promoted and given the name Fujiwara no Kamatari.
- - - - - In 2005, the remains of a building which may have been Soga no Iruka's residence were discovered in Nara. This discovery appeared to be consistent with the description found in Nihon Shoki.
- source : wikipedia -

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- quote -
Soga no Umako 蘇我馬子 (?551 - June 19, 626)
was the son of Soga no Iname and a member of the powerful Soga clan of Japan.
In the late 6th century, Soga no Umako went to great lengths to promote Buddhism in Japan, and was instrumental in its acceptance.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Iruka Soga's kubizuka 首塚 Head Mound
Iruka Soga's Kubizuka, Asuka, Asuka Village. It is located on the edge of rice field, about 100 m west of Asukadera 飛鳥寺 Asuka-dera temple. It is the oldest one in Japan, founded by Soga no Umako.
There was a public space in the west of Asuka-dera, where Emperor Tenji played "kemari" kickball with Fujiwara-no-Kamatari and planned to assassinate the clan leader Soga no Iruka.

This head mound monument, reportedly made in the Kamakura Period (1285-1333), indicates the mound where
Iruka Soga (蘇我 入鹿, ?-645)'s head was allegedly buried.

He was assassinated by Prince Naka-no-Oe (中大兄皇子), Saeki-no-muraji-komaro (佐伯連子麻呂) and
Kazuragi-no-waka-Inukai-no-muraji-Amita (葛城稚犬養網田) in the presence of the 35th Empress Kogyoku (皇極天皇, 594-661; r.642-645) at the Asuka-Itabuki-no-miya Palace (飛鳥板葺宮), which is called
"Isshi no hen" (乙巳の変; the Murder in the Year of Isshi, Isshi Incident) on June 12, 645.

Empress Kogyoku, deeply shocked at the murder, soon abdicated the throne to
the 36th Emperor Kotoku (孝徳天皇, 596?-654; r.645-554).

The Soga-clan was a very powerful family who took over the reins of government and killed
Shotoku Taishi (聖徳太子)'s son Prince Yamashiro-no-Oe (山背大兄皇子), but they perished in 645 by Prince Naka-no-Oe (中大兄皇子; later Tenji-tenno [天智天皇], 626-678;r.668-671) and Kamatari Nakatomi (中臣鎌足, 614-669), the founder of the Fujiwara clan (藤原氏). It is called "Taika-no-Kaishin" (大化の改新; the Reformation of the Taika Era).


Copyright (c) 2006 Eishiro Ito. All rights reserved.
- source : :Atelier Aterui - with more information !


. kubizuka 首塚 head mounds of Japan .

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Iruka Jinja 入鹿神社 Iruka Shrine
奈良県橿原市小綱町 / Shokocho, Kashihara, Nara

Deities in residence
蘇我入鹿 Soga no Iruka
スサノオ Susanoo (since Meiji)


The main deity is a wooden statue of a seated Iruka:

(replica of the statue)

Around the shrine are many families with the name of Soga 「蘇我」- 「曽我」.
曽我町 Soga town is close by and there is the shrine 宗我都比古神社 Sogatsuhuiko Jinja founded by
蘇我馬子 Soga no Umako, where the Soga clan is venerated.

In the Meiji period, it was thought improper to venerate a human as deity, so Susanoo was enshrined.
The name of the shrine was to be changed to 小綱神社 Koami Jinja, but due to strong protest of all the Soga around, the name IRUKA was kept.
In the compound of the shrine was also a temple, 仏起山普賢寺 Bukkizan Fugen-Ji, where 大日如来 Dainichi Nyorai is venerated. In the Meiji period, the temple was destructed, and the statue of Dainichi Nyorai given to temple 成等山正蓮寺 Shoren-Ji.



Part of the temple named 大日堂 Dainichi Do Hall with the statue remains to our day.


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蘇我蝦夷・入鹿
門脇 禎二

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


.......................................................................... Aichi 愛知県 ......................................
犬山市 Inuyama


Iruka-ike 入鹿池 Iruka Pond

ryuujin 龍神 Dragon Deity
Once the Dragon Deity of the Iruka Pond turned herself into a young woman and got married to a human.
Once a man named 福富信蔵 Fukutomi Nobuzo had a visitor every night and when their talk was over, she went to the Iruka pond, slipped in as a serpent and then became a dragon. But he could not get her as his wife.

Iruka no Sato 入鹿の里 Hometown of Iruka, at the Iruka Pond


.......................................................................... Nara 奈良県 ......................................


Soga no Iruka's Assassination.

After the beheading, the head of Iruka took off to the sky with a loud roar.
Three villages in Nara prefecture claim to be the place where his head landed.

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橿原市 Kashihara

Soga Iruka no kubi 蘇我入鹿の首 the head of Iruka
When Kamatari beheaded Iruka, his head flew away, an fell down at home near the bridge 橿原市曽我の首落橋.
The house nearby was called おって屋 Otte-ya.


source : kashikoken-yushikai.org/index

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桜井市 Sakurai

Soga Iruka no kubi 蘇我入鹿の首 the head of Iruka
Near the shrine 多武峰談山神社 Tanzan Jinja there is a huge rock where Iruka hid. But he was found by Kamatari and beheaded.


The head then took off with a roar. and fell down at 談上ヶ森 / 談所ヶ森 Tanjo no Mori.
On that night there was a great storm in the region.

. Tanzan Jinja 談山神社 Tanzan Shrine .
多武峯社 Tōnomine Shrine
and Fujiwara no Kamatari 藤原釜足

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高市郡 Takaichi district 明日香村 Asukamura

Soga Iruka no kubi 蘇我入鹿の首 the head of Iruka
When Kamatari beheaded Iruka, his head flew away with a loud roar. The head then begun to pursue Kamatari, who run away, passed Tonomine and run all the way to Asukamura, to the shrine 気都和既神社 Kitsuwaki Jinja. There Kamatari thought "The head will not find me here and not come here " (ここまでくれば、もうこぬ moo kone), and sat down on a rock in the forest which is now called
moo kon no mori もうこんの森 / "もうこの森" "The forest where he will not come", Moko Grove .
The head of Iruka then took off to the border of Ise, to 高見山 Takamiyama.



鎌足の腰掛石 The Rock where Kamatari rested




気都和既神社 Kitsuwaki Jinja
Nara-ken, Takaichi-gun, Asuka-mura, Kamura, 172


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -


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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

秋の蛇蘇我入鹿の野心もて
aki no hebi Soga Iruka no yashin mote

this snake in autumn
seems to be just as ambitions as
Soga Iruka


小林貴子 Kobayashi Takako

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入鹿池半分涸れてゐて碧し
Iruka-ike hanbun karete ite midori shi

the Iruka pond
is half dried out
and still so green


神谷定女 Kamiya Teijo



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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #sogairuka #sogaemishi #soganoiruka -
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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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2017-04-04

Kishibojin Kishimojin

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Kishibojin, Kishimojin 鬼子母神と伝説 Legends about the deity Kishibojin
訶梨帝母 Kariteimo - Kangimo 歓喜母 - the Mother of Child-Eating Demons


She is one of the Jūrasetsu-nyo 十羅刹女 Jurasetsu-Nyo, Ten Demon Daughters
rasetsu 羅刹 female demons from India
Kishibojin is the Japanese version of the Indian deity Hariti.

Kishibojin was a demon and used to eat children, before she was converted by Shakyamuni Buddha. Now she is the protector of children.


by 小妻要

. Kishibojin 鬼子母神 .
- Introduction -
Kijibojin mairi 鬼子母神参 pilgrimage to visit Kishibojin at temple 三井寺 Miidera
Kishibojin matsuri 鬼子母神祭 Kishibojin Festival


. kishi, oniko, oni-ko 鬼子 / 鬼コ demon (from Tsugaru) .



at temple 法華寺 Homyo-Ji, Tokyo

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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Aichi 愛知県 ......................................
知多郡 Chita district

おじゅらつさま / 十羅刹女即 O-Juratsu sama, 幸魂千足姫命 Sachimitama Chitarihi no Mikoto
The name of Juratsu-Nyo has been changed in the Meiji period in 1873 to Sachimitama Chitarihi no Mikoto
She had 1000 children herself and still used to eat those of the humans.

Once upon a time in 乙方村 Okkata village there were many children dying within two years. So the villagers decided to built a place to pray to O-Juratsu Sama (Kishibojin) to protect their children. The villagers prayed that 1000 children would be born in the following year in their vllage. Each family made dumplings until they had 1000 and the whole village prayed for seven days and nights.
And oh wonder, children were now born in the village, all healthy and strong.


.......................................................................... Akita 秋田県 ......................................

gomiso ゴミソ kamisama カミサマ

荒川つよ Arakawa Tsuyo married into a family with 4 children, and later had 7 children with her new husband.
Kishibojin appeared in her dream and told her what to do.
She accepted her position as kamisama カミサマ "wife" and lived for 30 years. She could beat a drum and call on the deity and tell the future by the flame of a wax candle.


.......................................................................... Chiba 千葉県 ......................................
夷隅郡 Isumi district

kitsune 狐 fox
There was a horse carriage driver who was skilled to roast a fox in an earthen pot.
There were many foxes causing troulbe in the village. So Kishibojin came to 狐退治し help drive out the foxes.


.......................................................................... Gunma 群馬県 ......................................
吾妻郡 Agatsuma district 中之条町 Nakanojo

On the 16th day of the first and 8th month, people prepare senbiki-gayu 千匹ガユ "rice porridge for 1000 animals" and make special offerings of rice, barley and sweets. They do this with prayers to Kishimojin to protect their children.
Kishibojin had 1000 children herself and had eaten 999 human children in her demon times . . . so people now make offerings at the crossroads for her.



.......................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県 ......................................
仙台市 Sendai 青葉区 Aoba ward



Ottsu matsuri オッツ祭 - 唖 Oshi
On the 15th day of the 8th lunar month, people celebrate the Ottsu festival at the 鬼子母神堂 Kishiboji Hall.
Ottsu is the local dialect for oshi 唖, people who can not talk.
Since Kishibojin had been stealing human children in her demon times, she is also called 盗人神 "thief Deity".

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栗原市 Kurihara

The 菅原家 Sugiwara family does not only celebrate their own ujigami 氏神 family deity but also Kishibojin.
Since they started this, their children never had accidents or wounds and grew up healthy.

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都城市 Miyakonojo

Kishibojin is venerated as Ubugami-sama 産神様, the deity of birth.


.......................................................................... Gunma 群馬県 ......................................

On 小正月 the 15th day of the first lunar month people have special rituals to pray for a long life.
The elder folk wrap their chopsticks in straw ropes and offer them to Kishibojin by hanging them outside on the eaves of the house.


.......................................................................... Okayama 岡山県 ......................................

. madoo 魔道 - まどう Mado, road where monsters pass .
ma no toorimichi 魔の通り道 / mamono no toorimichi 魔物の通り道
masuji, ma-suji 魔筋

Tengu no tooorimichi 天狗の通り道 / テングノトオリミチ road where Tengu pass

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北房町 Hokubo

kishiojin キシオジン / キシオヂン / きしおじん Kishio-Jin, Kishibojin
Once on the day of 庚申 Koshin the child of a certain family did not come home at night. Three days (months) later they found some of her cloths and some hair at an old temple near 古坊 Furubo. They showed them to カンパラ(祈祷師), a diviner at Soja. He found that キシオジン Kishiojin (the name of the deity in the local dialect) had taken her away.
The house of her family was built along a road where the Tengu pass.
(Other sources say a キシオジンの通り筋 road where Kishiojin passes.)
Also called Kishiojin-suji キシオジン筋.


.......................................................................... Tokyo 東京都 ......................................

雑司ヶ谷 鬼子母神堂  Zoshigaya Kishimojindo Hall




A deity eating children, later pomegranates (zakuro 吉祥果 / ザクロ) instead of meat. The plant has many seeds, to bring many children to praying mothers.


- HP of the temple 法明寺 Homyo-Ji



東京都豊島区雑司ヶ谷3-15-20 / 3 Chome-15-20 Zōshigaya, Toshima ward
- reference source : kishimojin.jp/index -


.......................................................................... Wakayama 和歌山県 ......................................

fukuroo kishoomon 腹籠起請文 written ritual pledge keep in the stomach of the statue



At the temple 中山遠寿院 Nakayama Onju-In they have a special pledge people prepare and which is kept in the stomach of a statue of Kishibojin.



- - - - - Maybe this is a mix with the temple of the same name in Chiba
2 Chome-3-2 Nakayama, Ichikawa, Chiba
遠寿院所蔵の起請文
- reference source : onjuin.com/index -


.......................................................................... Yamanashi 山梨県 ......................................
身延町 Minobu

The 鬼子母神堂 Kishibojin Hall at the temple in Minobusan is located along the route to the Oku-no-In sanctuary at the Chigo-Ike 稚児池 pond.



At the 鬼子母神堂 Kishibojin Hall, there was an ema 絵馬 votive tablet of a horse, which comes out at night to devastate the fields. The horse had been painted by 狩野探幽 Kano Tanyu and for some reason, the priest found dirt on its hooves and in its mouth every morning.
So special rituals were held to keep it in place.



kishi megami 鬼子め神 "Child eating female deity"


. Minobusan 身延山 and Saint Nichiren .

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Statue from temple Miidera

- Kariteimo - Introduction by Mark Schumacher -

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -



source : miyakobutsuzou.com/item/kisibojin

..............................................................................................................................................


. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



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2017-02-18

Ichijo Tenno

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Ichijō-tennō, Ichijoo Tennoo 一条天皇 Emperor Ichijo
Emperor Ichijyo


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Emperor Ichijō 一条天皇 Ichijō-tennō, 
(July 15, 980 – July 25, 1011) was the 66th emperor of Japan,
according to the traditional order of succession.



Ichijō's reign spanned the years from 986 to 1011.

Before he ascended to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (imina) was Kanehito-shinnō.
Kanehito-shinnō was the first son of Emperor En'yū and Fujiwara no Senshi, a daughter of Fujiwara no Kaneie. Since there are no documented siblings, it is supposed that he was an only child.
Ichijō had five Empresses or Imperial consorts and five Imperial sons and daughters.
His reign coincided with the culmination of Heian period culture and the apex of the power of the Fujiwara clan.
In 984,
he was appointed as crown prince under 花山天皇 Emperor Kazan. It was rumored contemporarily that his maternal grandfather Kaneie plotted to have Kazan retire from the throne.
Ichijō ascended the throne at the age of six.
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Ichijō had two empress consorts. First was Teishi (or Fujiwara no Sadako), a daughter of Fujiwara no Michitaka, second was Shōshi (or Akiko), a daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga, a younger brother of Michitaka. Most people thought it impossible to have two empress consorts, but Michinaga claimed that the empress held two separate titles, Chūgū and Kōgō, which were different in principle and could therefore given to two different women.
The courts of both empresses were known as centers of culture.
Sei Shōnagon, author of The Pillow Book, was a lady in waiting to Teishi. Murasaki Shikibu was a lady in waiting to Shoshi. There were other famous poets in the courts of the empresses.
Ichijō loved literature and music.
For this reason, high ranked courtiers felt the necessity for their daughter to hold cultural salons with many skillful lady poets. Particularly he was fond of the flute. Ichijō was known for his temperate character and was beloved by his subjects.
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Ichijō is buried amongst the "Seven Imperial Tombs" at 竜安寺 Ryoan-ji Temple in Kyoto. The mound which commemorates the Emperor Ichijō is today named 衣笠山Kinugasa-yama. The emperor's burial place would have been quite humble in the period after Ichijo died.
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The years of Ichijō's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.
Eien 永延 (987–988)
Eiso 永祚 (988–990)
Shōryaku 正暦 (990–995)
Chōtoku 長徳 (995–999)
Chōhō 長保 (999–1004)
Kankō 寛弘 (1004–1012)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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. 瑠璃山 Rurizan 正光院 Temple Shoko-In .
港区元麻布3-2-20 / 3 Chome-2-20 Motoazabu, Minato ward, Tokyo

The main statue of this temple is
Koyasu Yakushi 子安薬師 Yakushi Nyorai to protect children

The statue was made by 恵心僧都 源信 Eshin Sozu Genshin in the middle Heian period, carved at the birth of 一条天皇 Ichijo Tenno with prayers for the baby to grow up healthy. This wooden statue was lost in WWII, the present statue is a gift from Mount Koyasan.

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. Tsubosakadera 壷阪寺 .



This Temple is the sixth of 33 scared place of Kannon in the West of Japan and the principal image Juichmen Kanzeon Bosatsu (Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy) enshrined in the Temple has been extensively worshipped as the goddess marvelously responsive to eye diseases.
Emperors Gensho, Ichijo and Kanmu and man other famous historical persons prayed for the recovery from their eye diseases.


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. Kani Yakushi 蟹薬師 "Crab Yakushi" .
大寺山願興寺 Daiji San, Ganko-Ji // Mitake no Kani Yakushi 御嵩の蟹薬師

closely related to the emperor Ichijoo Tennoo 一条天皇 Ichijo Tenno, when the annual festival 蟹薬師祭礼 started.

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. Shiba Daijinguu 芝大神宮 Shiba Daijingu .

Founded in 1005, by the Emperor Ichijoo Tennoo 一条天皇 Ichijo Tenno.

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----- A legend about this Tenno:

He was maybe the first "pet lover" in documented history.


source : ntt-card.com/trace

He had a cat which he loved very much. One day a dog chased the cat, so he banned the dog for a while from his view. Even when the dog was allowed to come back, he was so afraid of his master that he did not eat a thing.
Therefore the Tenno pardoned him explicitly and took him in his lap again. The happy dog soon begun to eat again.

. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

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Emperor Ichijo 一条天皇 (Ichijou tennou)
Emperor Ichijô was an emperor of the Heian period, perhaps most well-known as being the reigning emperor during the composition of the Tale of Genji and Murasaki nikki by Murasaki Shikibu, and of The Pillow Book by Sei Shônagon. It was in Ichijô's court that much of the events related or referenced in these works took place.
A son of Emperor En'yû,
born in the Sanjô Palace and largely raised there by his grandfather Fujiwara no Kaneie, he succeeded to the throne upon the abdication of his uncle Emperor Kazan on 986/6/23. His accession ceremony was held on 7/22 that year. Ichijô's grandfather Fujiwara no Kaneie served as sesshô (regent for an emperor in his minority) from 986 until 990, and very briefly as kanpaku (regent for an adult emperor) following Ichijô's genpuku (coming of age) that year at the age of ten. Later that same year (990), Fujiwara no Michitaka took over as regent, holding the title of sesshô until 993 and then that of kanpaku until 995. Finally, Fujiwara no Michikane served as kanpaku briefly in 995.
He took Fujiwara no Akiko, a daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga, as his First Empress; she came to be known as Empress Shôshi. In 1000, he promoted Fujiwara no Sadako, also known as Empress Teishi, to First Empress, demoting Shôshi to Second Empress and creating considerable factional tension within the palace. As Murasaki Shikibu served Shôshi and Sei Shônagon served Teishi, this event contributed to rivalries between the two women which appear in their writings.
Ichijô abdicated the throne on 1011/6/13
in favor of his cousin, a son of Emperor Reizei, who took the throne as Emperor Sanjô. Ichijô then formally took the tonsure and entered retirement on 6/19, but died several days later on 1011/6/22.
One of his sons would later succeed Emperor Sanjô as Emperor Go-Ichijô.
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/ -

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MUSIC AND RELIGION IN JAPAN
In the reign of the Emperor Ichijyo (r. 986–1011),
mikagura was performed in the Naishidokoro (Kashikodokoro) Palace to the accompaniment of kagurabue (a bamboo transverse flute), hichiriki (a double-reed pipe), and wagon.
- source : 2005 Thomson Gale -

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. Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .

. Murasaki Shikibu 紫式部 .

. Japanese History / The Middle Heian Period .

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一条天皇 (人物叢書) bu 倉本一宏

- Reference - 一条天皇 -

- Reference - Emperor Ichijo -
Emperor Go-Ichijō was the 68th emperor of Japan

- Reference - Emperor Ichijyo -
Abeno Seimei Shrine was reportedly built by the 66th Emperor Ichijyo in 1007.
There was a very clever girl who was a daughter of Emperor Ichijyo.
Ichijyo Modoribashi

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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- #ichijo #ichijotenno #ichijyo-
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