2017-12-31

Welcome !

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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- - - - - Welcome to the Heian Period of Japan !

The Heian period  平安時代 Heian jidai 
794 to 1185.


CLICK for more colorful photos !

Read the introduction here:
- - - WIKIPEDIA - - -


This blog also covers the history and culture until the Heian period:

Legendary Emperors (660 BC - 269 AD)
Kofun Period (270-539)
Asuka Period (539–710)

. Nara Period (710 to 794)  奈良時代 .

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Mosts of the material is preliminarily collected on my facebook page.
. Join - Heian Period - on Facebook ! .


Details of the period will be introduced.
The many legends of this period, including legends and haiku about it, will be introduced in more detail.

This BLOG also collects legends, tales and folklore of Japan.

Gabi Greve

. ABC List of Contents - Heian Period .


A Gallery of the Darumapedia, Daruma Museum Japan.

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .


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- #heianperiod #legendsofjapan #heianjidai #folklore -
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2017-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, he oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真



. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise



. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .

. Kawara no In 河原院 Kawara-no-in - Kyoto .
official residence of 源融 Minamoto no Toru (822 - 895)


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name
- reference source : wikipedia -

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents .
- Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰 - legendary statesman and Kami
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi // Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).

. yami - Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period .

. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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2017-08-16

Hyoze no Matsuwaka - legend

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Hyooze no Matsuwaka 兵生の松若と伝説 Matsuwaka from Hyoze

Hyoze is a small hamlet in Wakayama, bordering to Nara, in the 果無山脈 Hatenashi Sanmyaku mountain range and 安堵山 Mount Andosan.
It can be reached from 福定 Fukusada and sometimes even bears roam in the deep forests surrounding it.


source : michi-oto.com/kodo/hyoze-sato1...

There used to be a sub-shrine of 春日神社 Kasuga Jinja in the forest and once a year the villagers come for special rituals.
The shrine is usually not visited by tourists.


source : michi-oto.com/kodo/hyoze-sato1...


. How Mount Hatenashi 果無山 got its name - Legend .

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兵生の松若 Hyoze no Matsuwaka

Once upon a time
there lived a very tall man in the forest of Hyoze, called 松若 Matsuwaka.
Once he went down to the village to get some salt. When he stretched out his hand a huge amount of salt would fit in.
During the 日露戦争 Russo-Japanese war (1904 - 1905) he was to be recruited by the army, but he never came to join.
Some other stories talk about a wolf who had bitten of one of his arms.

While Matsuwaka lived in the deep forest, he ate many strange things to survive and eventually 鬼になった became an Oni Demon.

. oni ni naru 鬼になる to become a demon .





Matsuwaka became known as the 山の妖怪 Yokai Forest Monster of Hyoze.
When he was born, the baby soon had all his teeth and long hair hanging down to his shoulders. He grew much faster then other babies and had a great appetite for any kind of food.
At age ten he realized that he would be a burden on his family and went off into the deep forest to live there.
Many years later a group of thieves haunted the village. Matsuwaka, who had become big like a demon, went down to the village to take care of the problem.
He soon killed all the thieves and thugs.

But after that, he was never seen again.
Sometimes villagers in Hyoze can hear him shout in the winter mountains - うおお~ UOOOOOOOO !

- reference source : nwn.jp/feature/20170722_wakamatu -



source : michi-oto.com/densetsu/hyoze-matsuwaka...

ある日のこと、山にこだまするほどの産声をあげながら、大きな男の子が産まれた。ひらいた口には歯がそろい、黒々した髪の毛が首筋まで伸びておったそうや。
「松若」と名付けられたその子は、ひと月もすると太い足をふんばって歩き始めた。それから数年、日ごとにたくましく育っていくが、誰もが驚くほどの大めし喰らい。家族の分まですっかり喰らってしまう松若に、親きょうだいはほとほと困り果てたんやと。

「わしが家におったら、みなが飢えてしまう」

松若は、そう思うたんやな。
だんだんと一人で山へこもるようになって、十歳になる頃には夜になっても帰らんようになった。村の男らは時おり、山の奥で獣を追いかける松若を見かけたそうや。裸の体はいっそう大きく育って、木々の間を走り抜けて巨岩を軽々と飛び越えていった。男らは目を見張って「ありゃ、松若じゃ」「鬼になったんじゃ」と言い合ったんやと。

ある夜、兵生に盗賊が押し寄せてきた。集団で荒しまわられて、村の衆は逃げまどうしかない。必死の思いで安堵山へ逃げ込んだ数人が、「松若よぉー、松若よぉー」とおがった(叫んだ)。すると「うおーい」という低い声とともに突風が吹いて、獣のような何かが転がるように走り込んできた。
松若や。

その大きな体は一瞬にして森を走り抜け、里にたどり着くと盗賊を次々となぎ倒した。松ヤニで塗り固められた松若の巨体は、刀さえはじき飛ばしたんや。

おかげで村は、難を逃れることができた。
村の衆はそりゃ喜んだ。松若に食わしちゃろと、米を持ち寄って餅をついてやったそうや。ほいたら松若は「餅はいらんさか、塩をくれよ。わしも塩がなけりゃ生きられんのや」と言うた。そこで、さっそく塩をかき集めて持たしてやると、茶色く節くれだった両手で大事そうに受け取った。

そして「なんぞあったら、安堵山でわしの名をおがれよ。助けにくるさか」って言うと、塩の袋を肩に担いで山に帰っていった。その背中が見えなくなるまで、村の衆はじっと見送っていたんやて。

それから、松若の姿を見た者はないんやが。
ただ、しんと冷えた冬の夜にな「うぉお、うぉお」っていう悲しそうな声が、山の方から響いてくることがあったそうや。
そんな時、すっかり年老いてしもた松若の母親は、「松若よぉ、松若よぉ」って家の前で声をふりしぼって呼んでたんやて。
source : michi-oto.com/densetsu/hyoze-matsuwaka...





Autumn festival at the Shrine Kasuga Jinja.


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- - - - - Hyooze, Hyoze - Not to mix with

. Hyōzu 兵主神 Hyozu no Kami - Deity of Wind and Weapons .


. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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2017-08-12

Empress Danrin Kachiko

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
. Persons of the Heian Period .
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Danrin Koogoo 檀林皇后 empress Danrin Kogo
(786 - 850)
橘嘉智子 Tachibana no Kachiko
daughter of Tachibana no Kiyotomo 橘清友



- quote -
the empress consort of Emperor Saga.
According to some sources, she was involved in the conspiracy to accuse Crown Prince Tsunesada in 842 of attempting a coup, thus exiling him and making way for her own grandson Prince Michiyasu to take the throne as Emperor Montoku, in an event known as the Jôwa Incident.
Danrin
is said to have been extremely beautiful, and to have been distressed by the extent to which her beauty distracted Buddhist monks and others from their work or studies. According to legend, she committed suicide and left orders that her body be left unburied at a particular street corner, so that people would see her decaying body and be forced to think about the impermanence of life, beauty, and material desires.
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com/index... -

She founded the Buddhist temple Danrin-Ji.

Danrin-ji (檀林寺) was Japan's first Zen temple, founded in Saga, Kyōto by order of Tachibana no Kachiko during the Jōwa era. The temple was destroyed by fire in 928, but was restored, and during the Muromachi period the temple was designated as one of Kyōto's five great Buddhist nunneries. The temple eventually fell into disrepair, and in 1339 construction of Tenryū-ji began on its grounds.
- source : wikipedia -

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"Nine Stages of Decomposition of the Heian Period Empress Danrin"
Danrin Koogoo Kusoozu 檀林皇后九相観 Danrin Kogo Kusozu
- source : commons.wikimedia.org/wiki... -
18th century Japanese scroll in the Honolulu Museum of Art, ex. Richard Lane Collection












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CLICK for more illustrations !

The nine stages are:

脹相(ちょうそう) - 死体が腐敗によるガスの発生で内部から膨張する。
壊相(えそう) - 死体の腐乱が進み皮膚が破れ壊れはじめる。
血塗相(けちずそう) - 死体の腐敗による損壊がさらに進み、溶解した脂肪・血液・体液が体外に滲みだす。
膿爛相(のうらんそう) - 死体自体が腐敗により溶解する。
青瘀相(しょうおそう) - 死体が青黒くなる。
噉相(たんそう) - 死体に虫がわき、鳥獣に食い荒らされる。
散相(さんそう) - 以上の結果、死体の部位が散乱する。
骨相(こつそう) - 血肉や皮脂がなくなり骨だけになる。
焼相(しょうそう) - 骨が焼かれ灰だけになる。
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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- Reference in Japanese 檀林皇后九相観 -
- Reference in English : empress danrin -

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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2017-08-08

Heian no Yami books

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. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period

There are books and other material on this dark subject !
Book details are available at
https://www.amazon.co.jp

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平安の闇
樺島忠夫 Kabashima Tadao (1927 - )

In former times the nights in the capital were dark.
In the darkness were dangers for the human life, robbers and demons and other things not well known, but to be feared.


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平安の闇に、ようこそ
Welcome to the Dark Side of the Heian Period!

Onmyōji Dokuhon: Heian No Yami Ni, Yōkoso
『陰陽師』読本 ― from the series about Onmyoshi
夢枕獏 Yumemakura Baku

安倍晴明・源博雅コンビ誕生の謎を解く!?
the secrets of Abe no Seimei and Minamoto no Hiromasa
野村萬斎との対談、登場人物、作品詳解等で徹底解剖

Baku Yumemakura 夢枕 獏 Yumemakura Baku,
(born 1951 in Odawara, Kanagawa) is a Japanese science fiction and adventure writer.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. Abe no Seimei 阿倍晴明 (921 - 1005) .
- 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do - The Way of Yin and Yang

. Minamoto no Hiromasa 源博雅 (918 – 980) .
- a 雅楽 Gagaku musician -
and the magical aobabue 青葉笛flute with green bamboo leaves


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平安時代という闇の深い時代



- reference source : tihourekisimatome.blog.jp/archives... -

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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2017-05-06

wolf okuri okami legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
. ookami 狼 伝説 Okami, wolf legends .
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okuri ookami 送り狼 "a wolf following someone"

. madoo 魔道 - まどう Mado, road where monsters pass .
ma no toorimichi 魔の通り道 / mamono no toorimichi 魔物の通り道
masuji, ma-suji 魔筋 // nawasuji, nawa-suji 縄筋

- Introduction -



source : dostoev.exblog.jp

okuri ookami 送り狼 "a wolf following someone"
If people walk alone on a lonely mountain road,
sometimes they hear a strange sound like a tail hitting the ground and think, a monster wolf is following them.
In that case they should never turn around to have a look. Wolves often follow women, but sometimes also men.
And there are wolves which are kind and helpful at night.
This monster wolf is especially active at sunset. People call the twilight time オオマガトキ ooma ga toki.

If people begin to whistle there will be even more Mamono monsters gathering in the area.
Children have to be especially careful.


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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Okayama 岡山県 ......................................

In Maniwa, 落合町 Ochiai, in the hamlet 栗原 Kurihara there was a woman walking along 城山 Shiroyama, Monster Road, to the next village, when a monster wolf was following her. She went straight home in a hurry, never daring to even look left or right. When she reached home and shut the main gate, she could see two eyes glowing outside and staring at her, then slowly disappearing.


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
55 to explore (02)
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. ookami 狼 伝説 Okami, wolf legends - wolves .

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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2017-05-04

matagi bear hunter legends

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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matagi 又鬼 - マタギ と伝説 Legends about bear hunters

mata oni ni naru 又鬼 "I have to become a demon again" . . . matagi . . .
The matagi hunter only takes life when it is absolutely necessary to support his life and the forest. He apologizes to the forest for taking life, prays for the soul of the dead animal and gives thanks to the circle of mountain life.

Many Matagi live in Ani town in Akita. 秋田県阿仁

. matagi 又鬼 - マタギ bear hunters .
- Introduction -



マタギ奇談 - 狩人たちの奇妙な語り
工藤隆雄 Eto Takao

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越後三面山人記 - マタギの自然観に習う
田口洋美 Taguchi Hiromi

日本の狩猟文化研究の第一人者、東北芸術工科大学教授兼狩猟文化研究所所長・田口洋美氏の若き日の意欲作、隠れたロングセラーを文庫化。
朝日連峰の山懐、新潟県の三面川(みおもてがわ)中流の深い谷間にあった三面集落。
今は三面ダムの底に沈んだこの山里の狩猟文化・山村習俗を、四季折々の山の民の暮らしを追うかたちで詳細に記録した、著者若き日の意欲作。
第一章 狩りの日の出来事
第二章 降りしきる雪の中で-冬-
第三章 山の鼓動とともに-春-
第四章 むせるような緑に抱かれて-夏-
第五章 時雨れる雲ノ下で-秋-
第六章 山人の自然学



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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Akita 秋田県 ......................................

kodama nezumi コダマ鼠 / 小玉鼠 Kodama Nezumi Yokai monster - Little Ball Rat


source : twitter.com/meirojp/status

It is feared by the Matagi of Akita, especially in Ani. Some say it evolved from seven Matagi who died the same day during a hunting accident.
If the rat hears the sound of a gun, it will rush to the spot and interfere with the hunting. When it spots a human, it stops what it's doing, inflates like a balloon, explodes and splatters the hunter with its own blood and guts.
If the hunters become aware of one, the Matagi will retreat from the mountain as fast as they can.

- reference : kodama nezumi yokai -

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Once upon a time in winter
a group of seven young Matagi went to the mountain forest. At night it begun to snow. On the second morning a young woman came to their hut and asked to be allowed to take shelter. On that night, the woman sucked the soul out of six of them and killed them. The last one woke up in time, took his hatched and chased the monster away.

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kakesu カケス / 橿鳥 / 懸巣 jay, Garrulus glandarius
If the jay make a racket, it will certainly rain. The Matagi pay attention to them.

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北秋田郡 阿仁町 Ani

Once their was a Matagi family wanting for food. Just then Kobo Daishi passed their hut and they wanted to take away his robes. He tried to understand their plight and told them, "Even if you now repent,
mata oni ni naru - you will become Oni again!
Hunting is your job, so go ahead and do it."
This is the origin of their name.
.
Yamagami no sakabu 山神のサカブ(叫び)は細く硬い声で、遠いところで響く鉦の音に似ている。女の声にも似ているが少し違う。明治30何年かに、この声で7尺5寸もある大きな熊を発見して捕ったことがあったという。

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鹿角郡 Katsuno district 小坂町

iwana 岩魚
昔柴内という村の八郎 Hachiro というマタギが、仲間と共に奥瀬山に入った時、雪溶け水に泳ぐ岩魚を救って食べた。するとあんまり喉が渇き、持っていたワッパで飲んでも間に合わず、腹ばいして鯨飲しているうちにその身が蛇身と化し、遂に十和田湖へ飛び込んで主となったという。

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仙北郡 Senboku district 角館町 Kakunodate

If the mice are disappearing from a Matagi's mountain hut, they know that something is amiss and disaster looming.
.
若い狩人(マタギ)が生け捕った猿を逃がしてやった。すると、猿は大勢の仲間と共に苺や栗をお礼に持ってきた。
.
マタギが雪崩にあい、埋まっていたが、その頃村の人たちはマタギの一行が肩に小長柄を担いで山から下りる姿を見た。幽霊であった。小長柄を肩に担ぐと雪崩にあうと言われている。

.
女房が親父の仕事をしている山へ弁当を届に行ったら山の神 Yama no Kami の怒りに触れて木の下敷きになり死んだ。

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山本郡 Yamamoto district 藤里町

マタギが猟をしている間、炊事当番の小僧のところに山人 Yamahito が来る。次の日、マタギが巻物を小刀で追い払った。山人が去る時には大荒になった。

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bears and hunters enjoying a break
野間仁根色紙 painting by Noma Hitone


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.......................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県 ......................................

マタギの家では寒三十日の間は決して豆を煎らない。豆を煎ったとき豆の跳ねる音がすると、その響きで山に雪崩が起きるという。また、節分の日に豆を煎り、その豆を食べて山へ出かけると災難に遭わず、その豆を山に持参すると災厄を除くという。

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仙台市 Sendai 太白区 Taihaku

. The brothers 万二万三郎 Banji and Banzaburo and the matagi マタギ hunters of Nikko. .


24 more legends from Miyagi

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
マタギ 49 to explore (02)
Akita 12 0K




Nametoko yama no kuma なめとこ山の熊 The bears of Nametoko Mountain
宮沢賢治 Miyazawa Kenji

..............................................................................................................................................


. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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2017-04-20

Soga Iruka Emishi

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Soga no Emishi 蘇我蝦夷 and Iruka 蘇我入鹿 と伝説 Legends
Soga no uji 蘇我氏 the Soga clan





- quote -
Soga no Emishi 蘇我蝦夷 (587 – July 11, 645)
was a statesman of the Yamato Imperial Court. His alternative names include Emishi (毛人) and Toyoura no Ōomi (豊浦大臣). After the death of his father Soga no Umako, Emishi took over Ōomi, the Minister of state, from his father.
According to the Nihonshoki,
from the end of the reign of Empress Suiko to that of Empress Kōgyoku, Emishi enjoyed influence in the court. After the death of Empress Suiko, Emishi succeeded in installing Prince Tamura on the throne as Emperor Jomei by citing the will of Empress Suiko. Although Prince Yamashiro was another candidate, Emishi murdered Sakaibe no Marise, his uncle who nominated Oe no Ou, paving the way for his favorite. After the discernment of Emperor Jomei, Emishi supported Empress Kōgyoku.
His daughter, Soga no Tetsuki no Iratsume, was a wife of Emperor Jomei and bore Emperor Jomei one daughter Princess Yata.
In 645, when his son Iruka was murdered in front of the Empress, Emishi committed suicide the next day.
- source : wikipedia -

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- quote -
Soga no Iruka 蘇我入鹿 (? - July 10, 645)
was the son of Soga no Emishi a statesman in the Asuka Period of Japan.



He was assassinated at court in a coup d'état involving Nakatomi no Kamatari and Prince Naka-no-Ōe ("Isshi no hen" 乙巳の変; Murder in the Year of Isshi - Isshi Incident), who accused him of trying to murder Prince Yamashiro, a charge which Soga no Iruka denied.
Soga no Emishi also committed suicide soon after his son's death, and the main branch of the Soga clan became extinct. Prince Naka-no-Oe latter ascended the throne as Emperor Tenji, and Nakatomi no Kamatari was promoted and given the name Fujiwara no Kamatari.
- - - - - In 2005, the remains of a building which may have been Soga no Iruka's residence were discovered in Nara. This discovery appeared to be consistent with the description found in Nihon Shoki.
- source : wikipedia -

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- quote -
Soga no Umako 蘇我馬子 (?551 - June 19, 626)
was the son of Soga no Iname and a member of the powerful Soga clan of Japan.
In the late 6th century, Soga no Umako went to great lengths to promote Buddhism in Japan, and was instrumental in its acceptance.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Iruka Soga's kubizuka 首塚 Head Mound
Iruka Soga's Kubizuka, Asuka, Asuka Village. It is located on the edge of rice field, about 100 m west of Asukadera 飛鳥寺 Asuka-dera temple. It is the oldest one in Japan, founded by Soga no Umako.
There was a public space in the west of Asuka-dera, where Emperor Tenji played "kemari" kickball with Fujiwara-no-Kamatari and planned to assassinate the clan leader Soga no Iruka.

This head mound monument, reportedly made in the Kamakura Period (1285-1333), indicates the mound where
Iruka Soga (蘇我 入鹿, ?-645)'s head was allegedly buried.

He was assassinated by Prince Naka-no-Oe (中大兄皇子), Saeki-no-muraji-komaro (佐伯連子麻呂) and
Kazuragi-no-waka-Inukai-no-muraji-Amita (葛城稚犬養網田) in the presence of the 35th Empress Kogyoku (皇極天皇, 594-661; r.642-645) at the Asuka-Itabuki-no-miya Palace (飛鳥板葺宮), which is called
"Isshi no hen" (乙巳の変; the Murder in the Year of Isshi, Isshi Incident) on June 12, 645.

Empress Kogyoku, deeply shocked at the murder, soon abdicated the throne to
the 36th Emperor Kotoku (孝徳天皇, 596?-654; r.645-554).

The Soga-clan was a very powerful family who took over the reins of government and killed
Shotoku Taishi (聖徳太子)'s son Prince Yamashiro-no-Oe (山背大兄皇子), but they perished in 645 by Prince Naka-no-Oe (中大兄皇子; later Tenji-tenno [天智天皇], 626-678;r.668-671) and Kamatari Nakatomi (中臣鎌足, 614-669), the founder of the Fujiwara clan (藤原氏). It is called "Taika-no-Kaishin" (大化の改新; the Reformation of the Taika Era).


Copyright (c) 2006 Eishiro Ito. All rights reserved.
- source : :Atelier Aterui - with more information !


. kubizuka 首塚 head mounds of Japan .

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Iruka Jinja 入鹿神社 Iruka Shrine
奈良県橿原市小綱町 / Shokocho, Kashihara, Nara

Deities in residence
蘇我入鹿 Soga no Iruka
スサノオ Susanoo (since Meiji)


The main deity is a wooden statue of a seated Iruka:

(replica of the statue)

Around the shrine are many families with the name of Soga 「蘇我」- 「曽我」.
曽我町 Soga town is close by and there is the shrine 宗我都比古神社 Sogatsuhuiko Jinja founded by
蘇我馬子 Soga no Umako, where the Soga clan is venerated.

In the Meiji period, it was thought improper to venerate a human as deity, so Susanoo was enshrined.
The name of the shrine was to be changed to 小綱神社 Koami Jinja, but due to strong protest of all the Soga around, the name IRUKA was kept.
In the compound of the shrine was also a temple, 仏起山普賢寺 Bukkizan Fugen-Ji, where 大日如来 Dainichi Nyorai is venerated. In the Meiji period, the temple was destructed, and the statue of Dainichi Nyorai given to temple 成等山正蓮寺 Shoren-Ji.



Part of the temple named 大日堂 Dainichi Do Hall with the statue remains to our day.


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蘇我蝦夷・入鹿
門脇 禎二

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


.......................................................................... Aichi 愛知県 ......................................
犬山市 Inuyama


Iruka-ike 入鹿池 Iruka Pond

ryuujin 龍神 Dragon Deity
Once the Dragon Deity of the Iruka Pond turned herself into a young woman and got married to a human.
Once a man named 福富信蔵 Fukutomi Nobuzo had a visitor every night and when their talk was over, she went to the Iruka pond, slipped in as a serpent and then became a dragon. But he could not get her as his wife.

Iruka no Sato 入鹿の里 Hometown of Iruka, at the Iruka Pond


.......................................................................... Nara 奈良県 ......................................


Soga no Iruka's Assassination.

After the beheading, the head of Iruka took off to the sky with a loud roar.
Three villages in Nara prefecture claim to be the place where his head landed.

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橿原市 Kashihara

Soga Iruka no kubi 蘇我入鹿の首 the head of Iruka
When Kamatari beheaded Iruka, his head flew away, an fell down at home near the bridge 橿原市曽我の首落橋.
The house nearby was called おって屋 Otte-ya.


source : kashikoken-yushikai.org/index

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桜井市 Sakurai

Soga Iruka no kubi 蘇我入鹿の首 the head of Iruka
Near the shrine 多武峰談山神社 Tanzan Jinja there is a huge rock where Iruka hid. But he was found by Kamatari and beheaded.


The head then took off with a roar. and fell down at 談上ヶ森 / 談所ヶ森 Tanjo no Mori.
On that night there was a great storm in the region.

. Tanzan Jinja 談山神社 Tanzan Shrine .
多武峯社 Tōnomine Shrine
and Fujiwara no Kamatari 藤原釜足

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高市郡 Takaichi district 明日香村 Asukamura

Soga Iruka no kubi 蘇我入鹿の首 the head of Iruka
When Kamatari beheaded Iruka, his head flew away with a loud roar. The head then begun to pursue Kamatari, who run away, passed Tonomine and run all the way to Asukamura, to the shrine 気都和既神社 Kitsuwaki Jinja. There Kamatari thought "The head will not find me here and not come here " (ここまでくれば、もうこぬ moo kone), and sat down on a rock in the forest which is now called
moo kon no mori もうこんの森 / "もうこの森" "The forest where he will not come", Moko Grove .
The head of Iruka then took off to the border of Ise, to 高見山 Takamiyama.



鎌足の腰掛石 The Rock where Kamatari rested




気都和既神社 Kitsuwaki Jinja
Nara-ken, Takaichi-gun, Asuka-mura, Kamura, 172


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -


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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

秋の蛇蘇我入鹿の野心もて
aki no hebi Soga Iruka no yashin mote

this snake in autumn
seems to be just as ambitions as
Soga Iruka


小林貴子 Kobayashi Takako

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入鹿池半分涸れてゐて碧し
Iruka-ike hanbun karete ite midori shi

the Iruka pond
is half dried out
and still so green


神谷定女 Kamiya Teijo



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