2017-12-31

Welcome !

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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- - - - - Welcome to the Heian Period of Japan !

The Heian period  平安時代 Heian jidai 
794 to 1185.


CLICK for more colorful photos !

Read the introduction here:
- - - WIKIPEDIA - - -


This blog also covers the history and culture until the Heian period:

Legendary Emperors (660 BC - 269 AD)
Kofun Period (270-539)
Asuka Period (539–710)

. Nara Period (710 to 794)  奈良時代 .

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Mosts of the material is preliminarily collected on my facebook page.
. Join - Heian Period - on Facebook ! .


Details of the period will be introduced.
The many legends of this period, including legends and haiku about it, will be introduced in more detail.

This BLOG also collects legends, tales and folklore of Japan.

Gabi Greve

. ABC List of Contents - Heian Period .


A Gallery of the Darumapedia, Daruma Museum Japan.

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .


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- #heianperiod #legendsofjapan #heianjidai #folklore -
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2017-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, he oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真


. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise


. Jishin no Ran 壬申の乱 Jishin war - 672 .
Ōama no ōji 大海人皇子 Prince Oama - 天武天皇 Tenmu Tenno


. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .

. Kawara no In 河原院 Kawara-no-in - Kyoto .
official residence of 源融 Minamoto no Toru (822 - 895)


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name
- reference source : wikipedia -

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents .
- Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰 - legendary statesman and Kami
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi // Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).

. yami - Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period .

. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

. Yuge no Miya 弓削の宮 / 弓削宮 - Osaka .
and - Yugi no Miya 由義宮 and the temple 弓削寺 Yugedera

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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2017-09-10

Jishin no Ran Tenmu Tenno

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Jishin no Ran 壬申の乱 Jishin war
civil war, “War of the Year of the Monkey", Jinshin rebellion
and 天武天皇 Emperor Tenmu Tenno




- quote -
a succession dispute in Japan which broke out in 672 following the death of 天智天皇 Emperor Tenji.
The name refers to the jinshin (壬申) or ninth year of the sixty-year Jikkan Jūnishi calendrical cycle, corresponding to the Western year 673.
Tenji had originally designated his brother, 大海人皇子 Prince Ōama, as his successor, but later changed his mind in favor of his son, 大友皇子 Prince Ōtomo / 大伴 Otomo. In the course of the violence that erupted as a result of factional rivalries, Ōtomo, having taken the throne as Emperor, took his own life after reigning for less than a year.
His uncle Ōama then succeeded to the throne as the Emperor Tenmu.
- Background -
Emperor Tenji ascended to the throne and set up a capital at Ōmi-Ōtsu (currently Ōtsu city, Shiga Prefecture). He made his best efforts for the foundation of a strong country, imitating the Tang Dynasty in China, importing the Tangs' culture, architecture and political systems. Japan had to pretend to have as much power as Tang because if Japan were regarded as weak, it was feared that the Tang might invade and conquer the country.

The next thing Tenji needed to do was to secure his successor. His Empress-consort was Yamato-hime but there were no children between the two. He had to find the right man from the sons of non-Imperial wives. Prince Takeru was the first son but he was mute by nature and died when he was seven years old. Prince Ōtomo was the next prince of the Emperor. He was a hard worker, and was very clever and intellectual. He had enough ability to be the next Emperor.

Although Ōtomo was almost perfect, his mother was of low birth. She was from the rural area landlord's family and was not Imperial-Household-born. This was a great disadvantage in considering Ōtomo to ascend to the throne.

At the same time, a younger brother of the Emperor Tenji's was as excellent as Ōtomo. He, Prince Ōama, had almost the same fitness as the Emperor, except that he was younger. His reputation was much greater than Ōtomo because he was of higher birth and was more suitable to be the next Emperor.
This was a major cause of the trouble to come.
In 670, the Emperor Tenji got sick. He realized that he couldn't live long, and he wished that, after his death, the Imperial Dynasty would pass to his son, Prince Ōtomo. Because Ōtomo's greatest rival was Ōama, the Emperor attempted to drive Ōama away. He invited the prince to his bedroom and asked if Ōama had an intention to take the throne.
If Ōama answered yes, the Emperor would have arrested and punished him as a traitor. Prince Ōama was clever enough to know his trick and answered that he had no will to succeed the throne and he wanted Ōtomo to be the next Emperor. He added that he wanted to be a monk instead of inheriting the throne and would retire to a temple in Yoshino. Because there were no reasons to punish Ōama any longer, the Emperor accepted the prince's proposal. Ōama went down to Yoshino the next day and became a monk.

The Emperor declared that Ōtomo was the next Emperor. Ōtomo summoned six subjects to the Emperor's bedroom and made them swear to help him in front of the Emperor. The Emperor nodded, and several days later he died.
.....
Prince Ōama pretended to be a monk at the temple in Yoshino, but he was looking for a chance to rise a rebellion against Ōtomo and to drive him away. He secretly collected weapons and soldiers to prepare for the coup-d'etat. In the seventh month of 672, he departed Yoshino and headed for the Palace in Ōtsu where the new Emperor Ōtomo was.
- The War
- Events in the War
- References
- MORE in the Wikipedia -



Prince Oama later became 天武天皇 Emperor Tenmu Tenno.

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Ooama no Ooji, Ōama no ōji 大海人皇子 Prince Oama - 天武天皇 Tenmu Tenno
(c. 631-686)



Tenmu - the 40th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Tenmu's reign lasted from 673 until his death in 686.
Emperor Tenmu is the first monarch of Japan, to whom the title Tennō (Emperor of Japan) was assigned contemporaneously — not only by later generations.
Tenmu had many children, including his crown prince Kusakabe.
..... In 671 Tenmu felt himself to be in danger and volunteered to resign the office of crown prince to become a monk. He moved to the mountains in Yoshino, Yamato Province (now Yoshino, Nara), officially for reasons of seclusion.



..... Tenmu assembled an army and marched from Yoshino to the east, to attack the capital of Omikyō in a counterclockwise movement. He left Yoshino with about 30 soldiers, but at the end of his march there were 30000. They marched through Yamato, Iga and Mino Provinces to threaten Omikyō in the adjacent province.
The army of Tenmu and the army of the young Emperor Kōbun fought in the northwestern part of Mino (nowadays Sekigahara, Gifu). Tenmu's army won and Kōbun committed suicide, an incident known as the Jinshin War.
..... As might be expected, Emperor Tenmu was no less active than former-Emperor Tenji in improving the Taika military institutions. Tenmu's reign brought many changes, such as:
(1) a centralized war department was organized;
(2) the defenses of the Inner Country near the Capital were strengthened;
(3) forts and castles were built near Capital and in the western parts of Honshū—and in Kyushu;
(4) troops were reviewed; and all provincial governors were ordered to complete the collection of arms and to study tactics.
..... In 675 Emperor Tenmu banned the consumption of animal meat (horse, cattle, dogs, monkeys, birds), due to the influence of Buddhism.
..... Emperor Tenmu commissioned the "Kojiki" to be the official history of Japan in order to help strengthen imperial rule. It was completed in 712 and the "Nihon Shoki" ("Chronicles of Japan"), another manuscript of myths and legends was compiled in 720.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !




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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

enoki 榎木 nettletree, Chinese hackberry tree
In the historical record of the Heike, 源平盛衰記 Heike Seisui-Ki, there is a story about Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147 - 1198). After loosing the battle of 石橋山 Ishibashiyama he hid in the hollow of a nettletree to avoid further harm.
When Tenmu Tenno was hiding from 大伴皇子 Prince Otomo, he also hid in the hollow of a nettletree.

.......................................................................
Osaka 大阪府

atori no kai 獦子鳥怪 / アトリ the monstrous Atori birds cloud
Atori belong to the family of sparrows.



In the 7th year of the reign of Tenmu Tenno a huge flog of these birds cluttered the sky. They even flow up to 摂津国天満 Tenman in Settsu and this bird storm lasted for three, four days.


kanro 甘露 "honey dew"
In the 7th year of the reign of Tenmu Tenno in winter, something like a piece of white cotton came floating down from the sky. It was about 180 cm long and 22 cm wide. Blown by the wind it landed in a pine tree forest. This was named Kanro.



春すぎて 夏来にけらし 白妙(しろたへ)の 衣ほすてふ 天の香具山
haru sugite natsu ki ni kerashi shiro-tahe no koromo hosutefu ama no kaguyama

Spring has passed, and / summer has arrived, it seems.
Heavenly Mount Kagu
Where it is said, they dry robes / of the whitest mulberry!

Tr. Ewa Machotka

Poem by Jitō Tennō 持統天皇 Empress Jito (645 – 703)
She was the wife of Emperor Tenmu,

.......................................................................
Yoshino 吉野 - Nara 奈良県

tennyo 天女 the Heavenly Maiden
Once Tenmu Tenno played the 琴 Koto near a waterfall in Yoshino. On the cliff opposite the river something strange like a colorful cloud appeared. Looking closer it had the form of 天女 a heavenly maiden, clad in traditional layered robes, performing a ritual dance.


This is the beginning of the ritual gosetchi no maihime 五節の舞姫 Gosechi no Mai .
This imperial dance is performed to our day, even in Kabuki.


- more photos source : deep.wakuwaku-nara.com/kiyomi -

吉野川 - 天皇淵 Yoshinogawa Tenno-Buchi Tenno Riverpool at river Yoshinogawa
Nearby is the shrine 浄見原神社 Kiyomihara Jinja.

Tenmu Tenno was quite taken by the dance of the Heavenly Maiden. He composed a poem:
おとめ子が乙女さびしもからたまを袂にまきておとめさびしも


.......................................................................

- - - - - How the village Totsukawa got its name:
At the time when Tenmu Tenno 天武天皇 was still a prince called 大海人皇子 Oama no Miko and was hiding in Yoshino, he looked all the way South and sighed in grief:
「とほつかは」 tootsuka wa

. Totsukawa 十津川と伝説 Legends about Totsukawa village .

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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- Reference in Japanese 壬申の乱 -
- Reference in English - jishin no ran -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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2017-09-06

Jizo kitsune legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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地蔵菩薩と狐と伝説 Legends about Jizo Bosatsu and kitsune Foxes



. Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 - Introduction -


. kitsune densetsu 狐 伝説 fox legends .




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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :


Yuuten Saisooshoo 祐天大僧正
Jizoo Daishi 地蔵大士 Jizo Daishi
祐天大僧正は、子のいない父母が、月輪が庭の木に降り、地蔵大士が如意珠を授ける夢に見た後に生まれた。誕生を祝って親族が集まった時、外に狐が来て三回鳴いた。皆が怪しんだが、祖母は夜に見た夢とこのことで、子供は優れた人物になると確信したと言い、僧にするよう訴えた。

. Yūten 祐天 Yuten Shami 祐天上人 Saint Yuten Shonin .

. Jizoo Daishi 地蔵大士 Jizo Daishi .
and Saint Shinnen Hoshi 真念法師


............................................................................... Akita 秋田県
横手市 Yokote

ookami 狼 Okami wolf and Kitsune and 石地蔵
明治初年頃、狐の悪さを懲らしめた老人への復讐に、狐が狼の群れを率いてやってきた。老人は復讐を予期して石地蔵に自分の服を着せておいたので、石地蔵を噛んで牙を痛めた狼たちは怒って狐を追い回し、去って行った。


............................................................................... Aomori 青森県
北津軽郡 Kita-Tsugaru district

. Sai no Kawara 賽の河原 Limbo of Children .


............................................................................... Chiba 千葉県
長生郡 長柄町

五井からの帰り道、地蔵様のところで激しい雷雨に遭ったので馬を木につないで帰った。翌日馬を取りに行くと、狐が馬に蹴られて死んでいた。狐が木に化けていたのだった。


............................................................................... Fukushima 福島県
郡山市 湖南町

石地蔵 Stone Jizo
麹屋のおとっつあまが山で狐にあい、おれは白河の石地蔵だといって、袋をかぶって狐からは石地蔵に見えるように化けた。麹屋は狐をおいらんに化けさせて吉原へ入れた。狐は飲んだり食ったりしたため、お客様の所で狐になって寝ていた。狐は殺されそうになって逃げて来た。そして、白河の石地蔵のところへ来て、おれをばかにしてといってゆすぐったが、あまりゆすぐったから石地蔵様の下になって死んでしまった。そして、人をばかにする狐がいなくなった。


............................................................................... Hyogo 兵庫県
出石郡 出石町

オオボウズに化けるイタチは肩に杖をつくと、けちと言って逃げる。地蔵の前で子供を背負った傘をさした人がいると、それは狐が化けている。ヌシである蛇は危害は無い。これらの俗信が列挙されている。

............................................................................... Iwate 岩手県
東磐井郡 大東村

Jisoo tooge 地蔵峠 Jizo Pass
新城集落の人が夜、地蔵峠で狐が化けた大きな人に抱えあげられてローソクをとられた。
新城集落の人が夜、正月料理の材料を持って歩いていたら、地蔵峠で狐が化けた7,8人の人に材料を取られた。狐は尾を振るたびに人間1人に化ける、7回振ったら7人に化けるという。
.
1920年ごろのこと。江刺の人が夜、地蔵峠で狐に提灯の火を取られた。狐は物音も立てずに足元をグルグル回って火を取ったが、その人は気づかなかった。


............................................................................... Kanagawa 神奈川県
津久井郡 Tsukui district 城山町 Shiroyamamachi

. Bake-Jizo 化け地蔵 / 化地蔵 Jizo as a yokai monster .


............................................................................... Kyoto 京都

地蔵の宋安寺
京都二条川東寺町本正寺の僧に狐の事を質問したら狐は祈祷者をも欺くと答えた。また伊勢中の地蔵の宋安寺に逗留した時、寺僧がこの寺には古狸が住んでおり初めて来る客の眠りを妨げると語ったがそのような事はなかった。


............................................................................... Miyazaki 宮崎県

伊良原地蔵
文政年間のこと。ある人の娘にとり憑いた病魔を本行という僧が取り払い、伊良原地蔵に移したと言って人々を参詣させた。修験の金剛院が加持すると、それは狐憑きであったので、愛染明王の蟇目ひきめの法で狐を追い払った。



............................................................................... Nagano 長野県
中野市

石地蔵 Stone Jizo
度胸のいい人が山で「おぶさるべ、おぶさるべ」と狐が言うので綱を持っていって、それをぶされと言い、おぶって帰ってきた。家に帰ると石地蔵をおぶっていた。
.
ある人が野原にわく湯に入って提灯を持って帰っていると、近所の人がぼんやりたたずんでいた。近付くと地蔵であった。提灯を後へ差し出すと狐が鳴きながら飛び出し、薮の中へ逃げた。

.......................................................................
Nagano, 下高井郡 山ノ内町

狐を見届けてやろうと田へ行くと、子持ち女が赤子を背負って一軒の家に入った。家のものにその女は狐だというと、家の者は怒って男の首を切った。首を切られた男は菩提寺に行くと地蔵様が「我が乗る花はこれなるぞ」と言う。気付くと寺の菊畑をみんな踏んでいた。

............................................................................... Okayama 岡山県
勝田郡 Katsuta district

sode mogi Jizoo 袖もぎ地蔵
豊田村柿部落に袖もぎ地蔵がある。この地蔵の前で転ぶと袖を取られるので袖もぎ地蔵という。昔隣村からの帰り道にこの地蔵さんの前に来ると、坂から石臼が転がってくるので避けようとして転んだ。怪我もないので家に帰ったが、片袖がないことを妻に指摘された。翌朝地蔵の前に行ってみたが石臼はなく、狐の仕業かと村人は話し合った。

sodemogi san 袖もぎさん(そでもぎさん)または袖もぎ様(そでもぎさま)
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%A2%96%E3%82%82%E3%81%8E%E3%81%95%E3%82%93


............................................................................... Shiga 滋賀県
蒲生町 Gamo town

. bake-Jizoo 化け地蔵 Bake-Jizo, the Monster-Jizo and the Fox .


............................................................................... Shimane 鳥取県
鳥取市 Shimane city

Oton Kitsune おとん狐 O-Ton Kitsune

おとん狐は江戸に出て、女郎に化け、ある恩義を受けた人に沢山のお金を送って報恩したという。

昔因幡国立見峠の古狐は里人を騙して頭をつるつる坊主にするというので恐れられていた。村の若い者がある日退治することとなり、2人で立見峠に出かけると黄金色の古狐がぶらぶら歩いていたが、やがて若い女に化けた。そして道端の石地蔵を抱き上げ川の水草をつけると赤子となった。それをおんぶして歩き出したので、後をつけると女は一軒の老夫婦を起こし、その子を抱かせた。老夫婦は孫だといって喜んでいたので、見てきた話を聞かせたが信じないので湯に赤子を投げ込んだが、赤子は死んでしまった。年寄り夫婦が怒っているところへ和尚が通りかかり、2人を剃髪して弟子とした。2人は一心に礼拝して木魚を鳴らした。夜が明けて村の人達が立見峠にくると、2人の若者が草野原に座り、竹櫛に馬糞を貫いたものを打ち振って騒いでいた。おとん狐のしわざである。


............................................................................... Yamagata 山形県
山形市 Yamagata town

Inari Sama 稲荷様
小滝街道を富ノ中に向かって進むと、まもなく「しらすば」と呼ばれる場所に差し掛かる。道路を挟んで左側の「しげだ」には吉田家の地蔵様が、右側の「しらすば」には阿部家の稲荷様がある。夜になると、地蔵様と稲荷様が逢い引きをするので、その時期に行き合って邪魔をしてしまうと、報復されるという。これが怪異の原因と言われる。


............................................................................... Yamaguchi 山口県
阿武郡 福栄村

石地蔵 Stone Jizo
金吉という男が狐を退治に行き、石地蔵を赤ん坊に見せかけたと思い殺したら、本物の赤ん坊だった。打ち首にされるところをお坊さんに助けられ、弟子になって粉挽きをしていると思っていた。金吉は最初から化かされており、森の中で木のうろに棒を入れてかき回しているのを村人に見つけられた。

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

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. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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2017-09-04

kitsune kuyo legends

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. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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kitsune kuyoo 狐供養と伝説 Legends about Fox memorial service

. kitsune densetsu 狐 伝説 fox legends .
- Introduction -




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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Aichi 愛知県
南設楽郡 Minami-Shitara district 長篠村 Nagashino

A fox welcomet the dead souls at the graveyard and asked them if the 供養 memorial service at their family was done well enough.
If they were content with their family offerings, the fox got angry, pooped on the ground and run off.
If they were unhappy with their family offerings and asked the fox to curse them, the fox was happy and went off to bewitch a family member.


.......................................................................... Aomori 青森県
北津軽郡 Kita-Tsugaru district

tanuki to kitsune 狸,狐 badger and fox
In the mountain behind 地蔵堂 the Jizo Hall there was another small hall with a few small stone statues.
People called this 賽の河原 Sai no Kawara, the Children's Limbo, waiting to go to the other world after death.
Before the Jizo Hall was built, a fox or a Tanuki roamed there and swindled people who wanted to pass. If this happened, such a person would soon die.
To appease their soul and hold 供養 memorial services for them, the Jizo Hall was erected.

. Jizo Bosatsu and Sai no Kawara 賽の河原 .
The Sai no Kawara at 恐山 Mount Osorezan in Aomori is especially famous.


.......................................................................... Fukushima 福島県
福島市 Fukushima city 飯坂町 Iizaka

This story was told at the end of the Edo period.
When the ancestors of the 安斎氏 Anzai family experienced a difficult birth, a fox appeared and died in front of their home. When they asked a shaman about the meaning of this, they were told that this fox was a messenger of the famous Fushimi Inari from Kyoto. The fox had carried the curse for a difficult birth.
Therefore they erected a small sanctuary and held a memorial service for the fox.
This is the 御仁稲荷 Gojin Inari.

. Fushimi Inari Taisha 伏見稲荷大社 - Kyoto .


.......................................................................... Kanagawa 神奈川県
横浜市 Yokohama 生麦村 Namamugi

daija 大蛇 huge serpent
Once upon a time, some few hundred years ago
a man from Namamugi village broke the promise to his dead wife and married again.
The jealous wife turned into a huge serpent, appeared in the local pond and attacked the man. He apologized to the soul of his dead wife and held a memorial service for her.
A few years later, an epidemic broke out in the village and many died. Some people saw a dream about a fox barking and running in front of 稲荷神社 the Inari Shrine or a huge serpent carrying a dead body from the Inari shrine to the sea.
The people followed the advice of a shaman, made a serpent of straw and purified it in a memorial service, then carried it around each home to appease the souls of the husband (fox) and his wife (serpent).


.......................................................................... Shiga 滋賀県
蒲生町 Gamo town

A fox shape-shifted into 地蔵 Jizo Bosatsu and did not let people pass the road.
People thought this was the curse of a fox and held a memorial service for the fox at the local 稲荷神社 Inari Shrine during the 地蔵盆 Jizo Bon rituals for the ancestors.
They made a special statue of Jizo, now called
bake-Jizoo 化け地蔵 Bake-Jizo, the Monster-Jizo.

. Bake-Jizo 化け地蔵 / 化地蔵 Jizo as a yokai monster .

. Jizoo Bon 地蔵盆 Jizobon, Jizo Bon .
ancestor ritual on August 24, mostly in Western Japan.


.......................................................................... Tochigi 栃木県
上都賀郡 Kami-Tsuga district

kyuubi no kitsune 九尾の狐 a fox with nine tails
A favorite dish of the Tochigi region is shimotsukare シモツカレ.
Shimotsukare is usually made by simmering vegetables, soybeans, abura-age (あぶらあげ or deep fried tofu skins, a favorite of foxes) and sake kasu (酒粕, literally rice pulp from fermented sake). Common additional ingredients include grated raw radish and carrots.



- - - - - Once upon a time
there lived a fox with nine tails at 殺生岩 Sesshoseki who caused a lot of trouble. The villagers killed it after luring it with this dish of Shimotsukare.
To appease the soul of the fox this dish is now prepared in a memorial service on hatsu-u-no hi (初午の日, literally; first day of horse in the month of February) together with sekihan ritual red rice as an offering to appease the legendary fox deity, Inari-no-shin (稲荷の神) Inari no Kami.

- Matsuo Basho visiting Sesshoseki - Oku no Hosomichi -
. - - Station 9 - Sesshoseki 殺生岩 - - - .
The fox is the spirit of Tamamo no Mae 玉藻前 - Tamamo Gozen 玉藻御前


source : prometheusblog.net/201
九尾狐 Kyubi-Ko fox

. Dishes from Tochigi - しもつかれ shimotsukare .

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -

..............................................................................................................................................


. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



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2017-08-26

unagi eel legends

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. Legends about Animals 動物と伝説 .
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unagi うなぎ / 鰻 と伝説 Legends about the eel


Utagawa Kuniyoshi 歌川国芳

. unagi, 鰻 / うなぎ, eel, Aal - Anguilla japonica .
- Introduction -

It was customary to eat kabayaki 蒲焼 broiled eel on the special unagi no hi 鰻の日 Unagi Eel Day,
the day of doyoo 土用 Doyo in summer, to gain strength in the great heat.

. anago 穴子 / アナゴ / 海鰻 conger eel - Congridae family.

. hamo 鱧 pike conger eel - Muraenesox cinereus .


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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.......................................................................... Fukushima 福島県 ......................................
双葉郡 Futaba district 浪江町 Namie

One of the nana fushigi 七不思議 seven wonders of Namie is a 白ウナギ / 白鰻驪  white eel.
蓮華院安楽坊には境内に、白鰻驪 、人を咬まない蝮、蛭、粟を食べない雀、3本足の雉、刈ったところから葉が出る杉、いつも実をつける茱の七不思議がある。




.......................................................................... Gifu 岐阜県 ......................................
郡上市の美並地区の粥川地区 Gujo, Minamimura, Kayugawa (Kaigawa)

unagi to oni 鰻 the Eel and yooki 妖鬼 the Monster Demon
Why the people of this area do not eat eel in Summer.


- Once upon a time
at mount 瓢ヶ岳 Fukubegatake (1,162m) there lived an oni 鬼 demon. Sometimes he came down the river 粥川 Kayugawa and caused great distress to the people living there, sometimes killing and eating them.
On orders of the Emperor the brave 藤原高光 Fujiwara no Takamitsu (c. 939 - 994) came here to drive out the Oni. But the Oni used his ability to become invisible and could not be found easily.
Takamitsu built four small shrines on mount Fukubegatake and 高賀山 mount Kogasan and prayed for help to 空蔵菩薩 Kokuzo Bosatsu. The deity granted him an arrow with pure white feathers.
Then 白鰻 one white eel appeared in the river and moved around as if he wanted to show the way to Takemitsu. Takamitsu followed the eel and found the Oni. With his strong bow and arrow he killed him with one shot.
After this, Takamitsu left his bow at the shrine Hoshinomiya Jinja 星宮神社, and the arrow at the side of the waterfall, which was then called
矢納ヶ淵 Yatogafuchi "the riverpool where the arrow was offered to the Gods".
From this time on, the villagers living along the river saw the eel as a messenger of the Deity and never ate a bite of eel.


Now there live a lot of eel happily in this "eel paradise".
They are protected as a 国の天然記念物 natural monument.


- 星宮神社 Hoshinomiya Jinja -
岐阜県郡上市美並町高砂1252 / 1252 Minamichō Takasago, Gujō-shi, Gifu


- 念興寺 Nenko-Ji -
郡上市和良町沢897 / 897 Warachōsawa, Gujō-shi, Gifu



Another version of the legend tells of Takamitsu cutting off the head of the Oni and when he washed his bloody sword in the river Kayugawa, it turned into an eel. The head of the Oni was taken to the temple Nenkooji 念興寺 Nenko-Ji by the villager 粥川太郎右衛門 Kayugawa Taroemon.
It is not shown any more, since if it were to come out, the weather would turn wild with storm and rain.)

- reference : Fujiwara no Takamitsu -
waka poet and Japanese nobleman.


.......................................................................... Gunma 群馬県 ......................................
安中市 Annaka

弘法大師 Kobo Daishi
At 東横野字上間仁田 Higashiyokono Kamimanita is a bridge called 鰻橋 Unagibashi, where fishing is not done.

Once when Kobo Daishi tried to cross a river here, he was in great difficulty and a huge eel made a bridge
to walk over and thus help him cross the river.
To express his gratitude, Kukai Kobo Daishi stomped his walking staff into the ground near the spot
and made a well which never got dry.




- and one more Kobo Daishi legend from 広島県 Hiroshima, Toyomatsu 豊松町

When Kobo Daishi tried to drink water from the river, a lot of eels were swimming around and made the water dirty. So he banned the eels from living in this spot, to teach them a lesson not to disturb thirsty travelers.

. Legends about Kobo Daishi Kukai - 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 .


.......................................................................... Kagawa 香川県 ......................................
羽方(現高瀬町) Takase Hagawa

unagibuchi ryuuoo 鰻淵龍王 the Dragon King of the Eel Pool
is venerated on a rock with a shimenawa 注連縄 sacred rope around it.
There live 黒鰻 black eels and 白鰻 white eels.
If people saw a black eel, it would rain. If they saw a white eel, it would shine.. Many people came to find out about the rain in their region.

There are various places in Japan called - reference : うなぎ淵 unagibuchi -


.......................................................................... Kagoshima 鹿児島県 ......................................

昔々、娘を3人持った寡婦がいた。大水で帰れなくなった母親を鬼が助けるかわりに、娘をくれと言ってきた。末娘が嫁に行くことになったが、鬼は急流に流されて娘は助かった。その後、娘はアジガナシの妻となって華やかな生活を送ったが、嫉妬した姉に殺され、鰻になった後、夫に食べられてしまった。


.......................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県 ......................................
刈田郡 Katta district 蔵王町 Zao

不動滝の大鰻,三階滝の大蟹 waterfalls with Huge Eeel
不動滝のヌシの大鰻と、三階滝の大蟹の合戦。大鰻は美女に化けて遠刈田の籠山の猟師に加勢を頼んだが、臆病な猟師は約束を破って鰻が負け、澄川は七日間血に染まる。


.......................................................................... Okayama 岡山県 ......................................

Once upon a time
an old farmer wanted to prepare an eel for the Doyo no Hi in summer, but the eel escaped. The farmer ran after him, but the eel escaped and climbed up to 天道 Mount Tendo.
Up there was a great house where 大鬼 a huge demon lived. When the wife of the demon used her flint stone to make fire, there was lightning in the sky. When the demon hit his drum, there was a great rumbling in the sky. The Oni gave the farmer a small pot with water. When he spilled just a little of water, there would be 夕立 an evening shower.


.......................................................................... Saitama 埼玉県 ......................................

. oo unagi 大鰻 the big eel causing earthquakes .



.......................................................................... Shizuoka 静岡県 ......................................

. Norota eel ノロタ(海鰻 umi-unagi) and Tsunami .
Muraenesox cinereus, also called anago アナゴ.

....................................................................... 
庵原郡 Ibara district  両河内村 Ryogouchimura

aka unagi 赤鰻 red eel
In the middle of the river 興津川 Okitsugawa was a huge meotoiwa 夫婦岩 "Rock for a Married Couple".
If water accumulated in one of the holes, this was a sign of bad fortune.
People said a red eel lived there.


.......................................................................... Wakayama 和歌山県 ......................................
有田郡 Arita district 清水町 Shimizu

shirounagi, shiro-unagi 白鰻 white eel
Once upon a time, maybe 400 years ago
a young girl and a young man were travellilng together. But one night the young man disappeared. The young woman got crazy with worry and walked around looking for him. Eventually she threw herself in the pool of a waterfall and died. From that time on in the waterfall pool there lived a female and a male white eel.
People thought the young woman must have been pregnant and given birth to a male baby boy.
In the spooky hours of the night, sometimes a green-blue flame can be seen hovering over the water and the voice of a crying baby is heard.


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
17 うなぎ (00)
99 鰻 (00) (00) 滝のヌシ / 淵の主 / 沼の主
76 ウナギ (00)
14 鰻 蛇 (00) serpent
7 鰻 龍 (00) dragon
6 鰻鱺 manrei (00)
05 鰻 蜘蛛 (00) spider
4 鰻 蟹 (00) crab
- - - - unagi to oni / Fudo / -

..............................................................................................................................................

. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - Index - .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

- Yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monsters of Japan -
- Introduction -

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- #unagi #eel #unagieel #aal -
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