Showing posts with label - - - AAA - Introduction -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - AAA - Introduction -. Show all posts

2017-12-31

Welcome !

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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- - - - - Welcome to the Heian Period of Japan !

The Heian period  平安時代 Heian jidai 
794 to 1185.


CLICK for more colorful photos !

Read the introduction here:
- - - WIKIPEDIA - - -


This blog also covers the history and culture until the Heian period:

Legendary Emperors (660 BC - 269 AD)
Kofun Period (270-539)
Asuka Period (539–710)

. Nara Period (710 to 794)  奈良時代 .

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Mosts of the material is preliminarily collected on my facebook page.
. Join - Heian Period - on Facebook ! .


Details of the period will be introduced.
The many legends of this period, including legends and haiku about it, will be introduced in more detail.

This BLOG also collects legends, tales and folklore of Japan.

Gabi Greve

. ABC List of Contents - Heian Period .


A Gallery of the Darumapedia, Daruma Museum Japan.

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- #heianperiod #legendsofjapan #heianjidai #folklore -
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2015-07-01

NARA - ABC Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Contents - Heian .
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ABC List of Contents - Nara Period (710 to 794)  奈良時代

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. Books about the Nara Period .

five-volume translation of Shoku Nihongi 続日本紀, 749-770
by Ross Bender

The Shoku Nihongi is an imperially commissioned Japanese history text. Completed in 797.

Volume 1 - The Edicts of the Last Empress, 749-770

Volume 2 - Nara Japan, 749-757:
A Study and Translation of Shoku Nihongi, Tenpyō Shōhō 1 – Tenpyō Hōji 1

... translation iof this segment of Shoku Nihongi, the official court chronicle of Japan’s eighth century. It includes Emperor Shōmu’s declaration before Rushana Buddha at Tōdaiji, Shōmu’s abdication and the accession of Empress Kōken, Hachiman’s entry into Nara, the death of Emperor Shōmu, and the suppression of the Tachibana Naramaro conspiracy.
at amazon com

Nara Japan, 764-766:
A Study and Translation of Shoku Nihongi, Tenpyō Hōji 8 -- Tenpyō Jingo 2

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. Persons of the Nara Period .

奈良時代の人物一覧 - List of the Emperors and Empresses

元明天皇……第43代天皇。Empress Genmei (661 - 721)
元正天皇……第44代天皇。Empress Gensho (680 - 748)

聖武天皇……第45代天皇。Emperor Shomu (701 - 756)
- - - Moat Discovered in Japan Could Be Ancient Burial Mound (with portrait of Shomu)
- - - - source : www.newhistorian.com -

孝謙天皇……第46代天皇。Empress Koken (718 - 770) - first time
淳仁天皇……第47代天皇。Emperor Junnin (773 - 765)
称徳天皇……第48代天皇。Empress Koken (718 - 770) - second time
光仁天皇……第49代天皇。Emperor Konin (709 - 782)
桓武天皇……第50代天皇。Emperor Kanmu (737 - 806)
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More
- source : wikipedia -

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. Shrines of the Nara Period 神社 .

. Kasuga Taisha 春日大社 .


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. Temples of the Nara Period 寺 .

. Toodaiji 東大寺 Todai-Ji and the Daibutsu 大仏 . *


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


. janjanbi じゃんじゃん火 / ジャンジャン火 Janjan fire legends .

. koma 独楽 spinning tops .
introduced in the Nara period via Goguryeo 高句麗 Goryeo (called Koma in Japanese).

. mingei 民芸 Nara Folk Art - 奈良県 .

. Persia and Nara 奈良時代 / ペルシャ人役人存在 .
New findings in October 2016

. Shoosooin, Shōsōin 正倉院 Shoso-In treasure house .
belongs to Tōdai-ji, Nara.


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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2015-06-23

Silk Road Asian Highway

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Contents .
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Silk Road シルクロード - Asian Highway アジアンハイウェイ
Maritime Silk Road 海のシルクロード


. kinu 絹 silk in Japanese culture .
- Introduction -

. Dunhuang 敦煌 Tonko Oasis and Buddhism .

A lot has been written about the importance of the Silk Road and Japanese culture.
Here I will concentrate on the Heian period . . . and the latest developments since 2015.

- quote -
The Silk Road or Silk Route - Seidenstrasse -



is a network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.
- source : wikipedia -


- quote -
The Asian Highway (AH) project, also known as the Great Asian Highway,



is a cooperative project among countries in Asia and Europe and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), to improve the highway systems in Asia. It is one of the three pillars of the Asian Land Transport Infrastructure Development (ALTID) project, endorsed by the ESCAP commission at its 48th session in 1992, comprising Asian Highway, Trans-Asian Railway (TAR) and facilitation of land transport projects.
- source : wikipedia -


China’s New Silk Road initiative
- source : Japan Times, June 2015 - (fb)

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- quote -
One Belt, One Road (Chinese: 一带一路 also known as the Belt and Road Initiative; abbreviated OBOR)
is a development strategy and framework, proposed by People's Republic of China that focuses on connectivity and cooperation among countries primarily in Eurasia, which consists of two main components, the land-based "Silk Road Economic Belt" (SREB) and oceangoing "Maritime Silk Road" (MSR). The strategy underlines China's push to take a bigger role in global affairs, and its need to export China's production capacity in areas of overproduction such as steel manufacturing.
- source : wikipedia -


- quote - Japan Times Jun 23, 2015 -
China's Indian Ocean strategy
Brahma Chellaney
NEW DELHI –
What are Chinese attack submarines doing in the Indian Ocean, far from China’s maritime backyard, in what is the furthest deployment of the Chinese Navy in 600 years? Two Chinese subs docked last fall at the new Chinese-built and -owned container terminal in Colombo, Sri Lanka. And recently a Chinese Yuan-class sub showed up at the Pakistani port city of Karachi.
The assertive way
China has gone about staking its territorial claims in the South and East China seas has obscured its growing interest in the Indian Ocean. This ocean has become the new global center of trade and energy flows, accounting for half the world’s container traffic and 70 percent of its petroleum shipments.
China’s newly released defense white paper, while outlining regional hegemony aspirations, has emphasized a greater focus on the seas, including an expanded naval role beyond its maritime backyard. The white paper says that, as part of China’s effort to establish itself as a major maritime power, its navy will shift focus from “offshore waters defense” to “open seas protection” — a move that helps explain its new focus on the Indian Ocean, with the Maritime Silk Road initiative at the vanguard of the Chinese grand strategy. To create a blue water force and expand its naval role, China is investing heavily in submarines and warships, and working on a second aircraft carrier.
President Xi Jinping’s pet project
is about expanding and securing maritime routes to the Middle East and beyond through the Indian Ocean, which is the bridge between Asia and Europe. Xi’s dual Silk Road initiatives — officially labeled the “One Belt, One Road” — constitute a westward strategic push to expand China’s power reach. Indeed, Xi’s Indian Ocean plans draw strength from his more assertive push for Chinese dominance in the South and East China seas.
The Chinese
maneuvering in the Indian Ocean — part of China’s larger plan to project power in the Middle East, Africa and Europe — aims to challenge America’s sway and chip away at India’s natural-geographic advantage. Xi has sought to carve out an important role for China in the Indian Ocean through his Maritime Silk Road initiative, while his overland Silk Road is designed to connect China with Central Asia, the Caspian Sea basin and Europe.
The common link
between the two mega Silk Road projects is Pakistan, which stands out for simultaneously being a client state of China, Saudi Arabia and the United States — a unique status.
During a visit to Pakistan in April,
Xi officially launched the project to connect China’s restive Xinjiang region with the warm waters of the Arabian Sea through a 3,000 km overland transportation corridor extending to the Chinese-built Pakistani port of Gwadar. This project makes Pakistan the central link between the maritime and overland Silk Roads. The Xi-launched corridor to Gwadar through Pakistan-held Kashmir — running in parallel to India’s Japanese-financed New Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor — will hook up the two Silk Roads.
Indeed,
a stable Pakistan has become so critical to the ever-increasing Chinese strategic investments in that country that Beijing has started brokering peace talks between the Pakistan-backed Afghan Taliban and Kabul. This effort has been undertaken with the backing not just of Pakistan but also of the U.S., thus underscoring the growing convergence of Chinese and American interests in the Afghanistan-Pakistan belt.
snip
The Maritime Silk Road initiative, with its emphasis on high-visibility infrastructure projects, targets key littoral states located along the great trade arteries. At a time of slowing economic growth in China, infrastructure exports are also designed to address the problem of overproduction at home.

By presenting commercial penetration as benevolent investment and credit as aid, Beijing is winning lucrative overseas contracts for its state-run companies, with the aim of turning economic weight into strategic clout. Through its Maritime Silk Road — a catchy new name for its “string of pearls” strategy — China is already challenging the existing balance of power in the Indian Ocean.
Beijing,
while seeking to co-opt strategically located states in an economic and security alliance led by it, is working specifically to acquire naval-access outposts through agreements for refueling, replenishment, crew rest and maintenance. Its efforts also involve gaining port projects along vital sea lanes of communication, securing new supplies of natural resources, and building energy and transportation corridors to China through Myanmar and Pakistan.
One example
of how China has sought to win influence in the Indian Ocean Rim is Sri Lanka. It signed major contracts with Sri Lanka’s now-ousted president, Mahinda Rajapaksa, to turn that country — located along major shipping lanes — into a major stop on the Chinese nautical “road.” The country’s new president, Maithripala Sirisena, said on the election-campaign trail earlier this year that the Chinese projects were ensnaring Sri Lanka in a debt tap, with the risk that “our country would become a colony and we would become slaves.”
- snip -
Beijing is also interested in leasing one of the 1,200 islands of the politically torn Maldives. Xi has toured several of the key countries in the Indian Ocean Rim that China is seeking to court, including the Maldives, Tanzania and Sri Lanka.
From China’s artificially created islands in the South China Sea
to its ongoing negotiations for a naval base in Djibouti, the maritime domain has become central to Xi’s great-power ambitions. Yet it is far from certain that he will be able to realize his strategic aims in the Indian Ocean Rim, given the lurking suspicions about China’s motives and the precarious security situation in some regional states.

One thing is clear though: China wants to be the leader, with its own alliances and multilateral institutions, not a “responsible stakeholder” in the U.S.-created architecture of global governance. It is building naval power to assert sovereignty over disputed areas and to project power in distant lands. Determined to take the sea route to secure global power status and challenge the U.S.-led order, China is likely to step up its strategic role in the Indian Ocean — the world’s new center of geopolitical gravity.
- source : Japan Times -

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The Silk Roads: A New History of the World
by Peter Frankopan (Author)


It was on the Silk Roads that East and West first encountered each other through trade and conquest, leading to the spread of ideas, cultures and religions. From the rise and fall of empires to the spread of Buddhism and the advent of Christianity and Islam, right up to the great wars of the twentieth century—this book shows how the fate of the West has always been inextricably linked to the East.

Peter Frankopan realigns our understanding of the world, pointing us eastward. He vividly re-creates the emergence of the first cities in Mesopotamia and the birth of empires in Persia, Rome and Constantinople, as well as the depredations by the Mongols, the transmission of the Black Death and the violent struggles over Western imperialism. Throughout the millennia, it was the appetite for foreign goods that brought East and West together, driving economies and the growth of nations.

From the Middle East and its political instability to China and its economic rise, the vast region stretching eastward from the Balkans across the steppe and South Asia has been thrust into the global spotlight in recent years. Frankopan teaches us that to understand what is at stake for the cities and nations built on these intricate trade routes, we must first understand their astounding pasts. Far more than a history of the Silk Roads, this book is truly a revelatory new history of the world, promising to destabilize notions of where we come from and where we are headed next.
- source : amazon com -

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Digital Silk Road Project
ディジタルシルクロード(DSR)プロジェクト
blog on Japan and Korea through the Silk Road music culture




日本と朝鮮に及んだシルクロード音楽文化
の正倉院」としての日本雅楽
- source : dsr.nii.ac.jp - - japankorea -

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Digital Silk Road Project
Digital Archive of Toyo Bunko Rare Books

国立情報学研究所 - ディジタル・シルクロード・プロジェクト
『東洋文庫所蔵』貴重書デジタルアーカイブ


Ser Marco Polo(マルコ=ポーロ卿)
- The main Index is here
- source : dsr.nii.ac.jp - - toyobunko -

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- Reference in Japanese -

- Reference in English - silk road Japan -

- Reference in English - maritime road -


. silk 絹 kinu and related legends .

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2015-06-22

Symbols and Art Motives

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Contents .
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Symbols and Art Motives of the Heian Period

Auspicious symbols were used as art motives, many coming from China.

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- quote -
Decorative Motifs in Japanese Art
Dr. Ilana Singer

In the Jomon period (ca.12,500-200 BCE) ceramic vessels were decorated with impressed motifs, usually rope patterns (whence the term "Jomon" - "rope pattern").
In the Yayoi period (200 BCE-ca. 250 CE), the art of throwing pottery on the wheel reached Japan from China via Korea, and new designs appeared - zigzags, triangles in saw-tooth patterns (tasuki), whirlpools, and complex abstract linear designs. In the Kofun period (250-552) metal wares were embellished with motifs that had also come to Japan from China, such as dragons, or the four deities representing the four winds of heaven - the green tiger of the East, the white tiger of the West, the red phoenix of the South, and the black tortoise-snake of the North. Other motifs included people, horses, wagons, jewels (magatama; semi-precious comma-shaped stones), animals and birds.

As of the 6th century CE, decorative motifs from East Asia, especially of the Chinese Tang era (618-907) appeared. Through China, by way of Korea, there arrived motifs from the Buddhist art of India, from Persia, and from Rome's Eastern Empire, as well as from Central Asia along the Silk Road. Influenced by Chinese paintings of the Tang period, designs incorporated sacred sites (alamkara), such as the buildings and gardens of the "Western Paradise" of Buddha Amida, as described in the Buddhist sutras. In the Asuka period (552-645), the flowering honeysuckle (nindo) was frequently represented as an arabesque (karakusa; "Chinese grass"), a rhythmic decoration with many variations, seen on the haloes of Buddhist sculptures, or embellishing roof-tiles. This motif apparently came to the East from Greece. Also during the Asuka period, other decorative motifs reached Japan from the mainland - such as the lotus flower, clouds, and four-petalled blossoms.

During the Nara period (645-794), contacts with the mainland increased. With China there was direct contact, and the capital city of Nara was modelled on the Chinese capital, Chang-an. In 756, after the death of the Emperor Shomu, his widow transferred more than 600 items he had collected to the Shosoin Treasure House in the Todaiji Temple, together with a detailed catalogue. Many of the items in this collection were brought to Japan from China and Persia, and some were made by Chinese and Korean artisans who had come to Japan, or by local artists. Even though the Chinese influence is evident in the Japanese works, there is also a dynamic integration of decorative elements from the mainland and from Japan itself.
(For additional information, see Decorative Motifs during the Nara period)



At the beginning of the Heian period (794-1185) the Nara motifs derived from the decorative arts of China were still very prevalent in Japan. However, long-tailed birds, the moon, the sun, and landscapes, all ornamented with gold and/or silver also appeared. Artists began applying gold leaf (kirikane) to surfaces, such as clouds floating the sky, and the style became more painterly. They also used inlays of various materials such as mother-of-pearl and precious metals. The use of lacquer as ornament also increased. At this time the Phoenix Hall in the Byodoin Temple was embellished with colourful representations of imaginary flowers, from floor to ceiling. Here, designs of hosoge karakusa and lotus flowers are painted in rhythmic sequences or in random patterns that appear to be almost symmetrical.
These decorations are very colourful, applied in gradations of colour (ungen saishiki) that had already been seen in the Asoka period, lending the two-dimensional designs a sense of depth. Ishi-datami (tile patterns) were still very prevalent in the Heian period, but at the end of the Chinese Tang era official contacts between Japan and China ceased until the 15th century. So that decorative motifs with local character were developed in Japan.
The patrons of art at that time were the aristocrats who lived in Kyoto, the capital, and the artists decorated practical items (tsukurimono), intended for the festivities of the cultural elite, with great elegance and finesse (furyu). It is apparent from these works that the nobility preferred naive motifs derived from nature, such as birds flying over a field.
As a rule, these scenes embellish inlaid lacquer wares. Another popular design of the era was the wheels of a wagon floating amid waves, derived from the custom of soaking the wheels in water to prevent the wood from drying out. This motif often appeared on paper for writing poetry, for fans, or for copying sutras.

The designers of the Heian period certainly loved painting creatures (butterflies, dragonflies, birds, hares) and plants (wisteria, pampas, maple, plum, cherry), as well as motifs from earlier times. The aristocracy were fascinated by the changing seasons of the year, and seasonal plants were used for decoration - chrysanthemum, akigusa (autumn flowers and foliage), reeds, willow fronds, bamboo or melons. Lions or phoenixes were painted inside medallions, and waves or misty effects were created with powdered silver or gold (sunagashi), rows of kikko (rows of hexagons like tortoise-shell), lozenges, and marbling effects were created by spraying ink onto wet paper (suminagashi).
At the beginning of the 12th century, new motifs appeared - the tomoe (comma), miru (seaweed), and maple leaves (kaede). A modified form of the medallion (ban-e) was used mainly on textiles and furniture, incorporating a lion inside a circle, and was also the basis for family crests , developed later. Textiles with diagonal stripes were preferred to Chinese embroidery.

A new art movement arose in China during the Sung Dynasty (960-1279), the artists and the educated elite wanting to depict truth (in Japanese: shin) in artistic creations. They adopted calligraphy and ink painting as means of personal expression, and the decorative arts declined in popularity. In the Chinese text "Abstract from the Xuanhe Period" (1120), a catalogue of art works from the Emperor Huizong's collection (Huizong: 1082-1135), there is the following note about Japanese screen paintings:
"In Japan there are paintings, but we do not know the names of the artists who painted them. These works depict the landscape and natural scenes of their homeland. They use thick layers of pigment, and much use is made of gold and primary colours. They do not portray true reality, but are paintings full of colour, dazzling to the eye in their glowing beauty".

At the end of the 12th century, the political power of the aristocracy was superseded by the Japanese Army, and the seat of government was transferred to Kamakura in the east of the country. The emperor and his court remained in the Heian capital (today Kyoto), the centre of culture.

- Continue reading :
. Tikotin Museum of Japanese Art - 2003 .

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A Case Study of Heian Japan through Art:
Japan's Four Great Emaki


This module focuses on the Heian period, 794-1185. Access the Heian Japan materials here:

“Heian Japan: An Introductory Essay,” by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University
“A Case Study of Heian Japan Through Art: Japan’s Four Great Emaki” (lesson plan), by Jaye Zola, retired teacher and librarian, Boulder Valley Schools
Print the Entire Lesson Module (pdf)

2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado.
- source : www.colorado.edu -

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Since the Heian period gilded bronze was often used.
... iconography of two Kalavinkas facing each other on a ground of floral tendrils ...

. keman 華鬘 flower garlands, flower hangers .

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matsukuwaezuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch



An auspicious motive bringing long life and good luck, often used for New Year dishes.
Also used on paper for fusuma sliding doors.


. tsuru 鶴 The Crane in Japanese Poetry .
Shunzei (1114-1204) and his son, Fujiwara no Teika (1162-1241)

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- Reference in English -

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. Symbols and Motives in Asian Art .


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2015-06-13

Legends Heian

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Legends of the Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代の伝説

yookai 妖怪 Yokai Monster Legends and more supernatural things



神代・奈良・平安時代 「怨霊信仰」が伝説を生んだ
The belief in vengeful spirits
井沢元彦 Izawa Motohiko


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .

. Goryoo Matsuri 御霊祭 Goryo Festival  
- - - - - for the eight vengeful souls, at shrine Goryo Jinja in Kyoto:
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真


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Hyakkaisai 百怪祭 Festival of 100 Monsters

One of the festivals of the Onmyodo practise.
Celebrated since the late Heian period, going on in the Kamakura and Muromachi period.
Dedicated to the supernatural phenomenon in general.
Now also as a Manga.

. Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005) .
onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang


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. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .

. Bamboo shoots - takenoko bamboo shoot legends - 筍 / 竹の子 伝説 .


. Daibosatsu legends 大菩薩 伝説 Dai-Bosatsu . *

. Doosojin 道祖神 Dosojin, Dososhin - Legends about Wayside Gods .


. Gozu Tennō Densetsu 牛頭天王 伝説 Gozu Tenno Legends .

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan . *
Heike legends, 平家蟹 crabs, 平家蛍 fireflies and more


. Kōbō Daishi Kūkai 弘法大師 空海 - 伝説 Kobo Daishi Kukai Legends .


. Shuten Dooji 酒呑童子 Shuten Doji "Sake Child" Demon .
the famous monsters of Oeyama 大江山. Minamoto "Raiko" Yorimitsu 源頼光


. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .


More legends in the list of personal names.
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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures :

.................................................................. Aichi 愛知県 ....................................................................

Once upon a time in the Heian period . . .
. yao bikuni 八百比丘尼 a nun for 800 years .


.................................................................. Kanagawa 神奈川県 ..................................................................

Tengu 天狗 from 相模大山 Sagami Oyama

Mount Oyama in Tanzawa is famous for the Tengu mountain goblins. The boss of all Tengu is Hoki-Bo. He came to Tazawa from Mount Oyama ( 伯耆大山 Daisen) in Hoki / Tottori.
But at Sagami Oyama there lived another Tengu already, 相模坊 Sagami Bo.
Sagami Bo once wanted to console retired emperor 崇徳院 Sutoku-In in his exile in Sanuki (at the end of the Heian period) and had been exiled himself to Kanagawa.

. Tengu Hookiboo 伯耆坊 Hokibo, Hoki-Bo .
- - - - - Seikooboo 清光坊 Seikobo, Seiko-Bo, from Daisen Tottori


. Sutoku Tenno, Sotoku 崇徳天皇 (1119 - 1142) .


.................................................................. Kyoto 京都市 ..................................................................

ji 璽,shinji, Shinshi 神璽 stamp or stamp of the Gods

During the early Heian period, 陽成天皇 Emperor Yozei opened a box with a seal of the Gods. At that time a white cloud escaped from the box.

- quote -
Emperor Yōzei 陽成天皇 Yōzei-tennō (2 January 869–23 October 949)
was the 57th emperor of Japan.
Yōzei's reign spanned the years from 876 through 884
- 877 (Gangyō 1, 6th month): There was a great drought; and sacrifices were made at the temples of Hachiman, Kamo and other temples in Ise province. Eventually, it rained.
- 884 (Gangyō 8, 1st month): The extravagant and dangerous habits of the emperor continued unabated.
- 4 March 884: Mototsune confronted the emperor, explaining that his demented behavior made him incapable of reigning, and that he was being dethroned. At this news, Yōzei cried sincerely,
- 889 (Kanpyō 1, 10th month): The former emperor Yōzei was newly attacked by the mental illness.
Eras of Yōzei's reign
- - - Jōgan (859–877)
- - - Gangyō (877–885)

- source : more in the Wikipedia -

御馬石 /
- 10 legends about Yozei to explore -


.......................................................................


. Joozoo, Jōzō 浄蔵 Jozo (891 - 964) .
Legends about monk, priest of the Tendai sect, Mid-Heian Period.


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seirei, ikiryoo, shooryoo, ikisudama 生霊 "living spirits"
haunting other people

They have been especially feared at the court in Kyoto.

. Ikiryō, ikiryoo 生霊 . 生き霊 Ikiryo“living spirit” .
shiryoo 死霊 spirit of dead person


.................................................................. Miyagi 宮城県 ..................................................................

名取市 Natori town 高館字熊野堂 Takadate Kumano-Do

. Natori Rojo 名取老女 The Old Woman from Natori .


.................................................................. Nagasaki 長崎県 ..................................................................

壱岐市 Iki town

Agonashi Jizoo あごなし地蔵 Jizo without a jaw

In the Heian period, 小野篁 Ono no Takamura was exiled to Iki Island.
There he fell in love with the beautiful 阿古那 Akona. When he was allowed to go back to Kyoto, he left her wooden two statues featuring the both of them.
They seemed to help with toothace and were later seen as Jizo Bosatsu.
They also helped with other pain, for example during pregnancy.
Even today, there are many letters of gratitude.

This is a pun with her name, Akona (Agona) and agonashi (no jaw)
. Agonashi Jizo 腮無地蔵 Jizo without a jaw or chin .
Jizo curing a toothace 歯痛平癒 - Legends from Japan


. 小野篁 Ono no Takamura - (802 - 853) .
Sangi no Takamura 参議篁 - politician and poet


- 6 legends to explore -



.................................................................. Tottori 鳥取県 ..................................................................

龍泉寺の平安仏 Ryosen-Ji no Heian Butsu

Once a robber stole the Heian Butsu Buddha from the Heian period. He carried it out of the temple hall, but kept walking in circles around the temple garden, never being able to exit it.
Thus the statue was not lost after all.


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- - - - - reference - - - - -

yokai database (14)
- Reference - www.nichibun.ac.jp -


- Reference - English -

- Reference - Japanese -


Japanese Tales - Royall Tyler



Here are two hundred and twenty dazzling tales from medieval Japan, tales that welcome us into a fabulous, faraway world populated by saints and scoundrels, ghosts and magical healers, and a vast assortment of deities and demons.
Stories of miracles, visions of hell, jokes, fables, and legends, these tales reflect the Japanese worldview during a classic period in Japanese civilization.
- reference -

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