Showing posts with label - - - History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - History. Show all posts

2017-12-30

ABC List Contents

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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ABC List of Contents - Heian Period (794 to 1185) 平安時代
- - - - - and the periods up to Heian



. Books about the Heian Period .

. Reference online .


. kojiki 古事記 Furukotofumi, he oldest chronicle in Japan .

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source : metmuseum.org/toah


. Persons of the Heian Period .


. Shrines of the Heian Period 神社 .


. Temples of the Heian Period 寺 .


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- - - - - Keywords, terms, specialities - - - - -


Anna 安和 era (968 - 970)
- source : wikipedia -
- - - - - . Anna Incident - Heian History .


. aoba no fue 青葉の笛 flute with green leaves .
flute of the monsters 鬼笛 onibue


Architecture in the Heian Period
James T. Ulak
In 784 the emperor Kammu (737–806) relocated the seat of government to Nagaoka. Nagaoka was marred by contention and assassination, however, rendering it an inauspicious location for the capital. Thus, in 794 a site to the east of Nagaoka on a plain sheltered on the west, north, and east by mountains and intersected by ample north-south rivers was judged appropriate by geomancers. Named Heian-kyō (“Capital of Peace and Tranquility”) and later known as Kyōto, this city was modeled on the grid pattern of the Tang Chinese capital at Chang’an. Heian-kyō remained the site of the imperial residence . . . (100 of 10,500 words)
- source : global.britannica.com/art -


. Aristocrats in the Heian Period .

. Ashikaga Gakkoo 足利学校 Ashikaga Gakkō, The Ashikaga School,
The Ashikaga Academy and Ono no Takamura 小野篁 .


auspicious symbols
- matsukuware tsuru 松くわえ鶴 crane holding a pine branch

. awabi densetsu あわび アワビ 鰒 鮑伝説 abalone legends .



. Ban Dainagon Ekotoba 伴大納言絵詞 picture scroll about the fire of Otemon 大手門 .

. Bandits, Pirates, Robbers - Heian History .

. Binbogami 貧乏神, Kyuuki 窮鬼 Kyuki - God of Poverty .

. Buddhism in Heian Japan .
- - - - - . Developments in Buddhism .

Buddhist sculptors 仏師 busshi - Heian Era
定朝 Jōchō Busshi (Jocho), 円派 Enpa and 院派 Inpa School
Magaibutsu 磨崖仏 cliff carvings
Artwork of the new sects, Tendai 天台 and Shingon 真言.
- source : Mark Schumacher -

. bussokusekika 仏足石歌, "Buddha footprint poems" .


Cleveland Museum pieces
Art of Japan: Masterpieces from the Cleveland Museum of Art / Heian (14 results)
- source : books.google.co.jp -

Colors of the Heian period
. . . A glimpse of many shades of color at the neck, sleeve and hemline . . .
check : Fujiwara no Teika "Meigetsu-Ki" Bright Moon Diary
. Japanese Colors - Introduction .
- - - - - . The Traditional Colors of Japan / by Sarah W . *


. daidokoro, daibandokoro 台盤所 kitchen .

Daijō-kan, Dajō-kan, Daijookan 太政官 Great Council of State
three ministers— : Daijō-daijin (Chancellor), Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) and Udaijin (Minister of the Right)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Dazaifu 大宰府 regional government in Kyushu, "the distant capital"
from the 8th to the 12th centuries.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. dengaku mai 田楽舞 Dengaku dance .


. Echizen shikki 越前漆器 Echizen laquer ware .
In 527A.D., when the 26th emperor of Japan was young, he ordered a lacquerware craftsman in Echizen to repair his crown . . .

emaki 絵巻 picture scrolls - tba
Ban Dainagon ekotoba (The Tale of the Courtier Ban Dainagon)
Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals)
Genji Monogatari emaki (The Illustrated Tale of Genji)
Shigisan engi emaki (Legends of Mt. Shigi)
- - Emaki, narrative scrolls from Japan – Miyeko Murase
- - Critical Terms for Art History - Nelson, Shiff
- - The Practices of Painting in Japan - Quitman Phillips


. Food and Drink in the Heian Period .

. Fujiwara regency - Heian History .


. gangu 玩具, omochcha おもちゃ toy, toys .
In the Heian period, it was called “mote (or mochi)- asobimono (mote or mochi means to hold in a hand, and asobimono means something to play with),” or it was referred to as simply “asobimono” in the Tale of Genji.

. Genji Monogatari 源氏物語 The Tale of Genji .
. . . . . Murasaki Shikibu

. Genpei War 源平戦争 - Heian History .
the Minamoto (源) and the Taira (平). The Heian Period ends with the Genpei War.

. gold and silver mines - kinzan 金山 ginzan 銀山 .

. Gold and Silver, Zipangu .


. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .
Sudo Tenno 崇道天皇 and his son,
Iyo Shinno 伊予親王.
his mother, Fujiwara Fujin, 藤原婦人
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 藤原広嗣
Tachibana Hayanari, 橘逸勢
Bunya no Miyata Maro 文室宮田麻呂
Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備
Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真


. Gozu Tennō 牛頭天王 Gozu Tenno Deity .


haiku about Heian 俳句と平安

hairstyle

. hamaya 破魔矢 and busha matsuri 歩射祭 or 奉射祭 .
- - - - - New Year ritual archery

. Hanami 花見 "Blossom viewing party" .

. haniwa はにわ【埴輪】“clay cylinder”clay figures .
- and the Hajibe 土師部 clan / mogari funeral rites もがり【殯】


. Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge" .
turning into a vengeful Oni demon

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. Heian bijin 平安美人 a beauty of the Heian Period, Heian Beauty . *
- - - - - . Aristocrats in the Heian Period - beauty .
- - - - - . The Fair Face of Japanese Beauty
Cosmetics for Japanese Women from the Heian Period to Today.
*

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Heianjo, Heian Jo 平安城 "The Castle of Heian"
平安城首 / 平安城尾 / 左 青竜 / 右 白虎 / 前 朱雀 / 後 玄武
『都名所図会』で京を巡る Kyo Meisho Zue - Illustrations of the famous places
. 都名所図会 Kyo Meisho Zue . *


Heian Kyoo 平安京 (literally "tranquility and peace capital") HeianKyo, Heian Kyo
was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.
- Including Kadono District (Kadono-gun, Atago 愛宕郡) and Otagi District (Otagi-gun, 愛宕郡) of Yamashiro Province (Yamashiro no kuni, then 山背国)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !
- - - - - .The Ancient Capital Heian Kyo - by Parker .


. Heian matsuri 平安祭 Heian festival - Kyoto .
Jidai matsuri 時代祭 "Festival of the Ages" - October
- - - - - Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Heian Jingu Shrine

. Heike densetsu 平家伝説 legends about the Heike clan .
The Tale of the Heike 平家物語 Heike Monogatari - 平 Taira - and more

. Heike tanuki 源平狸 papermache doll of a badger .
at Temple Yashima-Ji 屋島寺, Kagawa. The Tanuki believed that his former master was a prince of the Taira clan.

. hinomaru, hi no maru 日の丸 the Japanese Flag .
- - - - - Emperor Monmu used a flag representing the sun in his court in 701.

. hiragana 平仮名 ひらがな writing system .

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Iwate, the Golden Hall .
Fujiwara no Kiyohira 藤原清衡 and the Hiraizumi Fujiwara clan

. History of the Heian Period .
. . . . . Heian History by dates
- source : #heianhistory -

. Hoogen no ran, Hôgen no ran  保元の乱 Hogen Disturbace - 1156 .



. ikiryō, shōryō, seirei, ikisudama 生霊 Ikiryo, "living ghost" .

Ima Kagami - Fujiwara no Tametsune

. imayoo, imayō 今様 Imayo, popular song, imayoo uta 今様歌 .
Imayo Awase: Song contest in the Heian period


. inbi no gohan 忌火の御飯 "rice on the memorial day" .

. Ise monogatari 伊勢物語 Tales of Ise .
. . . . . and Yatsuhashi 八橋

. ishinago 石子 / イシナゴ / いしなご / 石なご / 石投 / 擲石 toy stone pebbles .
いしなどり / 石な取り ishinadori / いしなごとり ishinagotori / 石投げ ishinage
and
saigi 賽木、伊勢の賽木(いせのさいぎ)wooden dice from Ise


. Jishin no Ran 壬申の乱 Jishin war - 672 .
Ōama no ōji 大海人皇子 Prince Oama - 天武天皇 Tenmu Tenno


. Kagerō Nikki 陽炎日記 / 蜻蛉日記 Kagero Nikki, The Kagero Diary .
- - - - - The Mayfly Diary, The Gossamer Years, by Michitsuna no Haha (ca. 935-95)

. kaiawase, kai-awase,kai awase 貝合; 貝合わせ shell-matching game .

. kanbun (kambun) 漢文 written Chinese, the official language *

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 金売り吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春
Kichiji Nobutaka, Kitsuji Sueharu, Kane-uri Kichiji .

- legendary gold trader of the Heian Period

. kanju manju 干珠満珠 the tide jewels .

kanpaku 関白 Kampaku, regent
first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature .

. Kappa 河童 Water Goblin Legends of the Heian period .

. karuta, uta karuta 歌留多 Poetry card game .

. Kawara no In 河原院 Kawara-no-in - Kyoto .
official residence of 源融 Minamoto no Toru (822 - 895)


. kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball .

. Kimigayo 君が代 the Japanese Anthem .

kimono and fashion
- source : History-of-Kimono -
. juuni hitoe 十二単衣 12 layered court robe .

. Kinoshitagoma, 木ノ下駒 horse toy from Sendai .

Kin'yō Wakashū 金葉和歌集 Collection of Golden Leaves
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
- Introduction and legends -


Kokin Wakashū 古今和歌集 Waka poetry anthology
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Kokushi 国司 Kuni no tsukasa, regional governor .
and the legal system, Ritsuryō 律令 Ritsuryo

Konjaku Monogatari 今昔物語, Konjaku Monogatarishū 今昔物語集 Anthology of Tales from the Past
collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period (794-1185)
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. Korean heritage 韓国 Kankoku  朝鮮 Chosen - Korea .

. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
introduced in the Joogan 貞観 Jogan period (859 - 877).



. Legends of the Heian Period .

. Literature of the Heian Period 平安時代の文学 .


Makimuku Kofun and Himiko 纒向古墳群 卑弥呼


Makura no Sōshi 枕草子 Makura no Soshi, The Pillow Book
. by Sei Shōnagon 清少納言 Sei Shonagon .


. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo-Shu
Poetry "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" .



. Map 平安京オーバレイマップ .

. Masakado's Rebellion - Heian History .
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? – 940) .

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in the footsteps of the Heian period .

. Medicine - Honzo Wamyo 本草和名 . *

. Modori-bashi, modoribashi 戻橋 / 戻り橋 'Returning Bridge' . - Kyoto

. mokkoogata, mokko no katachi 木瓜形 four-lobed pattern .
..... "quince pattern", originated in Tang dynasty as a motif on courtiers' clothes and was very popular in the Heian period

. Motives and Symbols in Art .


Narumi Gold Mine in Echigo since the Heian period
越後の鳴海金山、血色の鍾乳石

nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name
- reference source : wikipedia -

. Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan
Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

. norito 神詞 のりと Shinto chants, incantations and prayers .

. Nue - Yorimasa and the Nue monster (鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥) .


. Ogura Hyakunin Isshu 小倉百人一首 Poetry Collection of 100 Poets .


. onmyoodoo 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do, The Way of Yin and Yang .
Abe no Seimei 安倍晴明 (921 – 1005)

. Onsen - Eight famous old Hot Springs 八古湯 and their legends .
- and other hot springs dating back to the Heian period

Ookagami, Ōkagami 大鏡 Okagami, The Great Mirror - historical tale
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. plum blossoms 梅花 loved in the Heian period.



. red and white 紅白 kohaku (koohaku) .
and the Battle of Dan-no-Ura 壇ノ浦の合戦

Romance - Forced Affection - Rape as the First Act of Romance in Heian Japan
- source : Stuart Iles -

Ryoounshuu, Ryōunshū 凌雲集 Ryounshu - kanshi poetry anthology
- source : wikipedia -


. samurai 侍 Samurai - servant .
In the early Heian period the word samurai meant servant and it had no military connotation and did not refer to a person of elite status.
. 4 The beginnings of the warrior (bushi) class - Heian History .
- - - - - . Rise of the military class .

. Sarutahiko densetsu 猿田彦伝説 Sarutahiko Legends .

. seko, haishi 背子 light robe or lover-friend .

Senzai Wakashū 千載和歌集 "Collection of a Thousand Years"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

sesshoo, sesshō 摂政 regent
a title given to a regent who was named to assist either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shika Wakashū 詞花和歌集 "Collection of Verbal Flowers"
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Shinsen Shōjiroku 新撰姓氏録 "New Selection and Record of Hereditary Titles and Family Names")
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

shooen, shōen 荘園 or 庄園 shoen system
. 2 The development of the shoen system - Heian History .
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


sonsho darani, Sonshō darani - Holy and Virtuous Spell
Crown of the Victor Dharani / Bucho Sonsho Darani
darani 陀羅尼 spell against the monsters and demons that haunted the capital in the Heian period.


. soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, monk-warrior, monk-soldier .


. Sumitomo's Rebellion - Heian History .
Fujiwara no Sumitomo 藤原純友 (? - 941)
. . . . . provincial official and pirate, most famous for his efforts to establish a sort of pirate kingdom for himself in the Inland Sea region between 936 and 941.

. Suzakumon 朱雀門 Suzakumon (Shujakumon) Gate .

. Symbols and Art Motives .



. Taika Reform 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin - 645 .
Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kotoku Tenno

. Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents .
- Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰 - legendary statesman and Kami
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi // Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

. Taketori Monogatari 竹取物語 Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Kaguyahime かぐや姫) .

. temari 鞠(まり)- 手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball .

. tomoe 巴(ともえ)Tomoe pattern .
This pattern first appeared in the Heian period . . .

. Tosa Nikki 土佐日記 Tosa Diary .
-. . . . . Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (872-945)

. Tsunami 津波 History since 684 .


. Waka poetry and Buddhism  和歌と仏教 .


. Yamashiro 山城 .
“Yamashiro” was formerly written with the characters meaning “mountain” (山) and “area” (代); in the 7th century, there were things built listing the name of the province with the characters for “mountain” and “ridge”/“back” (山背国). On 4 December 794 (8 Shimotsuki, 13th year of Enryaku), at the time of the christening of Heian-kyō, because of the resultant scenic beauty when Emperor Kammu made his castle utilizing the natural surroundings, the shiro was finally changed to “castle” (山城国).

. yami - Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period .

. yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters, ghosts, spooks .

. Yuge no Miya 弓削の宮 / 弓削宮 - Osaka .
and - Yugi no Miya 由義宮 and the temple 弓削寺 Yugedera

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. Newsletter - Latest Additions .

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- - - - - Nara 奈良 - - - - -

The Nara Period 奈良時代 Nara Jidai from 710 - 794

. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period 奈良時代 .

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #heianabclist #abclist #korea -
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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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2017-09-10

Jishin no Ran Tenmu Tenno

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Jishin no Ran 壬申の乱 Jishin war
civil war, “War of the Year of the Monkey", Jinshin rebellion
and 天武天皇 Emperor Tenmu Tenno




- quote -
a succession dispute in Japan which broke out in 672 following the death of 天智天皇 Emperor Tenji.
The name refers to the jinshin (壬申) or ninth year of the sixty-year Jikkan Jūnishi calendrical cycle, corresponding to the Western year 673.
Tenji had originally designated his brother, 大海人皇子 Prince Ōama, as his successor, but later changed his mind in favor of his son, 大友皇子 Prince Ōtomo / 大伴 Otomo. In the course of the violence that erupted as a result of factional rivalries, Ōtomo, having taken the throne as Emperor, took his own life after reigning for less than a year.
His uncle Ōama then succeeded to the throne as the Emperor Tenmu.
- Background -
Emperor Tenji ascended to the throne and set up a capital at Ōmi-Ōtsu (currently Ōtsu city, Shiga Prefecture). He made his best efforts for the foundation of a strong country, imitating the Tang Dynasty in China, importing the Tangs' culture, architecture and political systems. Japan had to pretend to have as much power as Tang because if Japan were regarded as weak, it was feared that the Tang might invade and conquer the country.

The next thing Tenji needed to do was to secure his successor. His Empress-consort was Yamato-hime but there were no children between the two. He had to find the right man from the sons of non-Imperial wives. Prince Takeru was the first son but he was mute by nature and died when he was seven years old. Prince Ōtomo was the next prince of the Emperor. He was a hard worker, and was very clever and intellectual. He had enough ability to be the next Emperor.

Although Ōtomo was almost perfect, his mother was of low birth. She was from the rural area landlord's family and was not Imperial-Household-born. This was a great disadvantage in considering Ōtomo to ascend to the throne.

At the same time, a younger brother of the Emperor Tenji's was as excellent as Ōtomo. He, Prince Ōama, had almost the same fitness as the Emperor, except that he was younger. His reputation was much greater than Ōtomo because he was of higher birth and was more suitable to be the next Emperor.
This was a major cause of the trouble to come.
In 670, the Emperor Tenji got sick. He realized that he couldn't live long, and he wished that, after his death, the Imperial Dynasty would pass to his son, Prince Ōtomo. Because Ōtomo's greatest rival was Ōama, the Emperor attempted to drive Ōama away. He invited the prince to his bedroom and asked if Ōama had an intention to take the throne.
If Ōama answered yes, the Emperor would have arrested and punished him as a traitor. Prince Ōama was clever enough to know his trick and answered that he had no will to succeed the throne and he wanted Ōtomo to be the next Emperor. He added that he wanted to be a monk instead of inheriting the throne and would retire to a temple in Yoshino. Because there were no reasons to punish Ōama any longer, the Emperor accepted the prince's proposal. Ōama went down to Yoshino the next day and became a monk.

The Emperor declared that Ōtomo was the next Emperor. Ōtomo summoned six subjects to the Emperor's bedroom and made them swear to help him in front of the Emperor. The Emperor nodded, and several days later he died.
.....
Prince Ōama pretended to be a monk at the temple in Yoshino, but he was looking for a chance to rise a rebellion against Ōtomo and to drive him away. He secretly collected weapons and soldiers to prepare for the coup-d'etat. In the seventh month of 672, he departed Yoshino and headed for the Palace in Ōtsu where the new Emperor Ōtomo was.
- The War
- Events in the War
- References
- MORE in the Wikipedia -



Prince Oama later became 天武天皇 Emperor Tenmu Tenno.

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Ooama no Ooji, Ōama no ōji 大海人皇子 Prince Oama - 天武天皇 Tenmu Tenno
(c. 631-686)



Tenmu - the 40th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Tenmu's reign lasted from 673 until his death in 686.
Emperor Tenmu is the first monarch of Japan, to whom the title Tennō (Emperor of Japan) was assigned contemporaneously — not only by later generations.
Tenmu had many children, including his crown prince Kusakabe.
..... In 671 Tenmu felt himself to be in danger and volunteered to resign the office of crown prince to become a monk. He moved to the mountains in Yoshino, Yamato Province (now Yoshino, Nara), officially for reasons of seclusion.



..... Tenmu assembled an army and marched from Yoshino to the east, to attack the capital of Omikyō in a counterclockwise movement. He left Yoshino with about 30 soldiers, but at the end of his march there were 30000. They marched through Yamato, Iga and Mino Provinces to threaten Omikyō in the adjacent province.
The army of Tenmu and the army of the young Emperor Kōbun fought in the northwestern part of Mino (nowadays Sekigahara, Gifu). Tenmu's army won and Kōbun committed suicide, an incident known as the Jinshin War.
..... As might be expected, Emperor Tenmu was no less active than former-Emperor Tenji in improving the Taika military institutions. Tenmu's reign brought many changes, such as:
(1) a centralized war department was organized;
(2) the defenses of the Inner Country near the Capital were strengthened;
(3) forts and castles were built near Capital and in the western parts of Honshū—and in Kyushu;
(4) troops were reviewed; and all provincial governors were ordered to complete the collection of arms and to study tactics.
..... In 675 Emperor Tenmu banned the consumption of animal meat (horse, cattle, dogs, monkeys, birds), due to the influence of Buddhism.
..... Emperor Tenmu commissioned the "Kojiki" to be the official history of Japan in order to help strengthen imperial rule. It was completed in 712 and the "Nihon Shoki" ("Chronicles of Japan"), another manuscript of myths and legends was compiled in 720.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !




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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

enoki 榎木 nettletree, Chinese hackberry tree
In the historical record of the Heike, 源平盛衰記 Heike Seisui-Ki, there is a story about Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147 - 1198). After loosing the battle of 石橋山 Ishibashiyama he hid in the hollow of a nettletree to avoid further harm.
When Tenmu Tenno was hiding from 大伴皇子 Prince Otomo, he also hid in the hollow of a nettletree.

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Osaka 大阪府

atori no kai 獦子鳥怪 / アトリ the monstrous Atori birds cloud
Atori belong to the family of sparrows.



In the 7th year of the reign of Tenmu Tenno a huge flog of these birds cluttered the sky. They even flow up to 摂津国天満 Tenman in Settsu and this bird storm lasted for three, four days.


kanro 甘露 "honey dew"
In the 7th year of the reign of Tenmu Tenno in winter, something like a piece of white cotton came floating down from the sky. It was about 180 cm long and 22 cm wide. Blown by the wind it landed in a pine tree forest. This was named Kanro.



春すぎて 夏来にけらし 白妙(しろたへ)の 衣ほすてふ 天の香具山
haru sugite natsu ki ni kerashi shiro-tahe no koromo hosutefu ama no kaguyama

Spring has passed, and / summer has arrived, it seems.
Heavenly Mount Kagu
Where it is said, they dry robes / of the whitest mulberry!

Tr. Ewa Machotka

Poem by Jitō Tennō 持統天皇 Empress Jito (645 – 703)
She was the wife of Emperor Tenmu,

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Yoshino 吉野 - Nara 奈良県

tennyo 天女 the Heavenly Maiden
Once Tenmu Tenno played the 琴 Koto near a waterfall in Yoshino. On the cliff opposite the river something strange like a colorful cloud appeared. Looking closer it had the form of 天女 a heavenly maiden, clad in traditional layered robes, performing a ritual dance.


This is the beginning of the ritual gosetchi no maihime 五節の舞姫 Gosechi no Mai .
This imperial dance is performed to our day, even in Kabuki.


- more photos source : deep.wakuwaku-nara.com/kiyomi -

吉野川 - 天皇淵 Yoshinogawa Tenno-Buchi Tenno Riverpool at river Yoshinogawa
Nearby is the shrine 浄見原神社 Kiyomihara Jinja.

Tenmu Tenno was quite taken by the dance of the Heavenly Maiden. He composed a poem:
おとめ子が乙女さびしもからたまを袂にまきておとめさびしも


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- - - - - How the village Totsukawa got its name:
At the time when Tenmu Tenno 天武天皇 was still a prince called 大海人皇子 Oama no Miko and was hiding in Yoshino, he looked all the way South and sighed in grief:
「とほつかは」 tootsuka wa

. Totsukawa 十津川と伝説 Legends about Totsukawa village .

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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- Reference in Japanese 壬申の乱 -
- Reference in English - jishin no ran -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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2017-08-23

Kofun Osaka

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. ABC List of Heian Contents .
. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .
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Kofun in Osaka - Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group

Mozu kofungun (百舌鳥古墳群)
is a group of kofun or tumuli in Sakai, Osaka Prefecture,
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Furuichi kofungun (古市古墳群)
is a group of one hundred and twenty-three kofun or tumuli in Fujiidera, Osaka Prefecture,
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- quote - Eric Johnston -
Osaka’s ancient burial mounds eyed for World Heritage status but clear explanations elude


Nintoku-tenno-ryo (the Nintoku Mausoleum) in Sakai, Osaka Prefecture, is part of the Mozu-Furuichi group of ancient burial sites known as kofun, which the government has recently put forward for World Heritage status.

he government’s decision in late July to nominate a group of 49 ancient burial sites in southern Osaka Prefecture for UNESCO World Heritage status has raised local hopes for a major boost in international prestige and tourism appeal.

But the move also raises sometimes politically sensitive questions about what the sites, called kofun, really are, who are buried within, and how to explain their history and meaning.

The nominated sites are known as the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group. They lie in two areas, in the city of Sakai just south of the city of Osaka along the coast of Osaka Bay, and in Fujiidera and Habikino in the southeast part of the prefecture. They include the 486-meter Nintoku-tenno-ryo (Nintoku Mausoleum) kofun, one of the world’s largest burial mounds.

The Mozu-Furuichi kofun are believed to have been built from the late fourth to late fifth and early sixth centuries, during the Kofun Period, which lasted for about 400 years beginning in the second half of the third century. Kofun are found over much of Honshu and Kyushu and were built in many different shapes, including keyhole, square and circular shapes. Sizes range from 10 meters to over 400 meters.

Kofun also had slightly different designs. Some were surrounded by only one moat, while others had two or three. Burial mounds might have one, two or three tiers.

The generally accepted historical explanation for the kofun mounds is that, as Japan’s ancient Yayoi culture was based on wet rice farming, settlements around rice paddies grew, and with them, local political structures known as kuni (today’s word for “country”) arose. It was these local groups that began constructing kofun.

But for whom? History and legend are mixed. The Imperial Household Agency has designated 895 sites from Yamagata to Kagoshima prefectures as Imperial mausoleums and tombs, including 188 burial mounds for senior members of the Imperial family. Citing a need to preserve the “serenity and dignity” of the tombs, entrance by the general public is forbidden and access by archaeologists is severely restricted.

In December 2014, the agency offered a guided tour to academics and reporters around a previously off-limits kofun called Tannowa Nisanzai in the far south of Osaka Prefecture, not part of the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group. While the Imperial Household Agency officially classifies it as an Imperial grave, some archaeologists believe it was built for a local chieftain.

Getting the tombs designated as a World Heritage site would likely lead to increased international interest in who, exactly, is buried in them.

It could also increase calls among archaeologists in Japan and abroad for better and more frequent access to carry out scientific studies on their contents, possibly leading to controversial discoveries and conclusions that would rewrite current official history.

For its part, Osaka Prefecture was careful in explaining the kofun in its English-language materials. Brochures and the English-language website promoting the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group introduce kofun in general as places where “people of high rank, that is the elite, in those days were buried in kofun tombs. Many powerful rulers, such as (the) great kings of the Yamato Government, had this type of mound constructed.”

In the case of the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group, the explanation in one brochure is that it “is considered to be the tomb group where tombs for the ruling elites, including great kings and their vassals, were concentrated. It is said that the differences in the scale and form of mounds as well as the structure of burial facilities depend on the social status and family background of the deceased, representing the sociopolitical hierarchy of the time.”

In many kofun of the Mozu-Furuichi Group, burial goods similar to those found in other parts of Asia, such as earthenware figures known as haniwa, bronze accessories and weapons have been excavated over the centuries.

“These excavated artifacts show the influence of the Korean Peninsula and China, proving that Japan had active exchanges with other East Asian countries at that time,” the brochure reads. The English-language website for the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group goes further, saying they could be seen “as a collection of tombs of the Kings of Wa over seven generations, together with their family members and vassals. As such, they could rightly be called the ‘Royal Tumulus Complex.’ “

Announcing its decision that the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group had been selected as Japan’s World Heritage candidate for the current fiscal year, the Cultural Affairs Agency explained its choice by saying the group is centered on Nintoku-tenno-ryo, the largest keyhole-shaped kofun in the country, considered to be the grave of an ancient Japanese king, and that the group includes many kofun of different sizes and designs, thus representative of others around Japan.

There are seven giant keyhole-shaped kofun in the group, with five having a double or triple moat. They are thought to have been built by ancient sovereigns who were later known as tenno (emperors), the official Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group website reads, adding there was plenty of evidence to suggest that these seven kofun are the tombs of ancient Japanese sovereigns.

The agency also said its decision to nominate the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group was partially based on the belief that there was room to revise the details of the bid to reflect post-selection judgments and recommendations, although what those might be were not spelled out.

Asked about revisions to the bid, Osaka Gov. Ichiro Matsui said the recommendations and concerns of the agency need to be resolved. But now that the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group is Japan’s official candidate, attention is turning to what needs to be done to ensure that the group meets UNESCO’s requirements to become a World Heritage site.

“In the end, because it’s UNESCO that directs World Heritage sites, we have to get the structure of a bid past their eyes,” Matsui added.

To win its approval, UNSECO asks a number of questions about the proposed site’s uniqueness, creativity, connection to living events and traditions, and structural integrity. But what’s most important, the prefecture says, is value.

“To get on the World Heritage list, the candidate site must be of ‘Outstanding Universal Value,’ and meet certain criteria. A detailed written history of the site is less important to getting on the list than proving it has value,” said Hiroshi Yamagami, an Osaka prefectural official involved with the bid.

Yamagami said the plan was for a provisional bid to be sent by the central government to UNESCO this autumn. The final, official bid documents would be submitted to the U.N. agency by January.

“After that, representatives from the International Council on Monuments and Sites, which advises the World Heritage Committee, would visit in the summer and early autumn of 2018. They’d deliver their report on the Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group in 2019, and the final decision to grant or reject World Heritage status would come from UNESCO around the summer of that same year,” Yamagami said.

For Sakai, getting the Mozu-area kofun listed is expected to lead to an economic windfall. A city estimate says the economic impact could be ¥100 billion for Osaka Prefecture, including about ¥33.8 billion for Sakai, mostly in the form of increased visitors. However, Sakai Mayor Osami Takeyama is also worried about how, exactly, to explain what visitors are seeing.

“Presentation (of the kofun) is becoming an issue. How do we present the kofun in the information center in a way that is convincing to those who have come?” asked the mayor in early August.

That question is likely to be answered over the coming weeks as Matsui, Takeyama and the prefectural government consult Diet members, the Cultural Affairs Agency and the Imperial Household Agency on what the final recommendation to UNESCO will look like. Given the sensitivities involved, what UNESCO officials are handed in January could make very interesting, and possibly controversial, reading indeed.
- source : Japan Times -


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- Reference in Japanese -
- Reference in English -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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. kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538 .

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2017-08-12

Yuge no Miya Osaka

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Yuge no Miya 弓削の宮 / 弓削宮 - Osaka

- - - - - not to confuse with
Yugi no Miya 由義宮 and the temple 弓削寺 Yugedera, founded in 765
Yugi-no-miya in Kawachi province.
Both Yuge-no-miya and Yugedera are mentioned in “Shoku Nihongi".



由義神社 Yugi Jinja

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- quote - TAKASHI ENDO -
Dig offers 1st hint of second capital in Osaka in 8th century


The Higashi-Yuge archaeological site in Yao, Osaka Prefecture, where the remains of pillars and trench digs dating to the eighth century have been discovered (Provided by the Yao municipal board of education)

YAO, Osaka Prefecture--Evidence of structures dating back more than 1,000 years at an archaeological site here points to the existence of a "second" capital that is known only through eighth-century chronicles.

Archaeologists say pits dug in the ground for massive wooden pillars, along with evidence of an extensive trench, offer compelling indications that the Higashi-Yuge ruins hosted Yuge-no-miya, a site shrouded in mystery.

This other capital was purportedly built at the behest of female Emperor Shotoku, who ruled from 764 to 770 during the Nara Period (710-784).

Emperor Shotoku (718-770) is known to history for favoring a Buddhist monk named Dokyo, who died in 772 having attained great power under her patronage.

Dokyo won court favor through his devoted prayers for her health after she fell seriously ill. The emperor later promoted him to the extremely influential post of “hoo,” the highest rank among Buddhist monks.

The discovery of the sprawling complex at the Higashi-Yuge site was announced Aug. 16 by the Yao cultural property research council, which is affiliated with the Yao city government.

Masashi Kinoshita, professor emeritus of archaeology at Tokyo Gakugei University, is expecting that further excavation of the site will shed light on the second capital city.

“Few details are known of Yuge-no-miya. The recent discovery of the canal may help unravel the mystery,” he said, referring to the excavation of trenches, which experts believe were filled with water and used to transport building materials.

In February, archaeologists said they unearthed the first evidence of a huge pagoda for Yugedera temple at the Higashi-Yuge site. The temple was built by Dokyo there before his fall from grace following the death of the emperor.

Both Yuge-no-miya and Yugedera are mentioned in “Shoku Nihongi,” the imperially commissioned history text on the Nara Period, but there was no evidence to support this until recently.

A large section of the second capital got built, but the city was never finished due to Emperor Shotoku's death.

The latest excavations are being carried out 500 meters or so northeast of where the apparent pagoda foundations were unearthed.
The square-shaped pits measure between 60 centimeters and 80 cm. Experts believe that pillars 20-25 cm in diameter were sunk into the holes. The pits are lined up in the four points of the compass. That suggests Yuge-no-miya was constructed there, according to Masanobu Hirose, a member of the council.

“The site shows that there was very precise demarcation,” he said. “Yuge-no-miya, set out neatly in a grid pattern, must have sprawled to the area where archaeologists are now working.”

The trench is about 10 meters long, 16-20 meters wide and 1 meter deep.
Coupled with a 60-meter-long trench found nearby last summer, it is thought that they formed part of an artificial canal measuring some 600 or 700 meters in total length.

Archaeologists speculate that the canal was built to transport materials to build the second capital and Yugedera, or to serve as drain bypass for river works.

Kinoshita said he leans to the former theory.
“Workers need to transport building materials, such as large pillars and tiles, by water in short bursts, to efficiently construct key structures of a city based on meticulous planning,” he said. “I believe that the trenches were most likely a portion of the canal built to transport building materials for Yugedera and Yuge-no-miya."

In the finding announced in February, archaeologists said the possible foundations of the Yugedera's pagoda were found in a geological layer dating to the late Nara Period.

The foundations measure approximately 20 meters by 20 meters, which suggests the structure was at least seven stories high and rose to a height of more than 60 meters.
- source : asahi.com/ajw/articles... 2017 -




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由義宮(ゆげのみや、ゆげぐう)Yugenomiya, Yugeguu - wikipedia

- Reference in Japanese - 弓削の宮 -
- Reference - osaka yuge no miya -

- reference - yugi no miya osaka -


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2017-08-08

Heian no Yami books

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. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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Heian no Yami 平安の闇 The Dark Side of the Heian Period

There are books and other material on this dark subject !
Book details are available at
https://www.amazon.co.jp

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平安の闇
樺島忠夫 Kabashima Tadao (1927 - )

In former times the nights in the capital were dark.
In the darkness were dangers for the human life, robbers and demons and other things not well known, but to be feared.


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平安の闇に、ようこそ
Welcome to the Dark Side of the Heian Period!

Onmyōji Dokuhon: Heian No Yami Ni, Yōkoso
『陰陽師』読本 ― from the series about Onmyoshi
夢枕獏 Yumemakura Baku

安倍晴明・源博雅コンビ誕生の謎を解く!?
the secrets of Abe no Seimei and Minamoto no Hiromasa
野村萬斎との対談、登場人物、作品詳解等で徹底解剖

Baku Yumemakura 夢枕 獏 Yumemakura Baku,
(born 1951 in Odawara, Kanagawa) is a Japanese science fiction and adventure writer.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. Abe no Seimei 阿倍晴明 (921 - 1005) .
- 陰陽道 Onmyo-Do - The Way of Yin and Yang

. Minamoto no Hiromasa 源博雅 (918 – 980) .
- a 雅楽 Gagaku musician -
and the magical aobabue 青葉笛flute with green bamboo leaves


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平安時代という闇の深い時代



- reference source : tihourekisimatome.blog.jp/archives... -

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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2016-10-07

Nara and Persia

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. ABC List of Contents - Nara Period .
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Nara and Persia
奈良時代 / ペルシャ人役人存在


- quote Japan Times -
Ancient inscription suggests Persian official worked in 8th century Nara
Ancient Japan may have been far more cosmopolitan than previously thought, archaeologists said Wednesday, pointing to fresh evidence of a Persian official working in the former capital of Nara more than 1,000 years ago.



Present-day Iran and Japan were known to have had direct trade links since at least the 7th century, but new testing on a piece of wood — first discovered in the ’60s — suggest broader ties, the researchers said.

Infrared imaging revealed previously unreadable characters on the wood — a standard writing surface in Japan before paper — that named a Persian official living in the country.

The official worked at an academy where government officials were trained, said Akihiro Watanabe, a researcher at the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties.

The official may have been teaching mathematics, Watanabe added, pointing to ancient Iran’s expertise in the subject.

“Although earlier studies have suggested there were exchanges with Persia as early as the 7th century, this is the first time a person as far away as Persia was known to have worked in Japan,” he said.

“And this suggests Nara was a cosmopolitan city where foreigners were treated equally.”

Nara was the capital of Japan known as Heijokyo from around 710 to around 784 before it was moved to Kyoto and later to present-day Tokyo.

The discovery comes after another team of researchers last month unearthed ancient Roman coins at the ruins of an old castle in Okinawa Prefecture.

It was the first time coins from the once mighty empire have been discovered in Japan, thousands of kilometers from where they were likely minted.
- source : Japan Times -


奈良市の平城宮跡から出土した8世紀中頃の木簡に、ペルシャ(現代のイラン付近)を意味する「破斯(はし)」という名字を持つ役人の名前が書かれていたことが、奈良文化財研究所の調査でわかった。
source : news.yahoo.co.jp/pickup


破斯清通 - はしのきよみち: Hashi no Kiyomichi

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- Reference in Japanese -
- Reference in English -

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2016-04-14

signature kao and osumitsuki

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. ABC List of Heian Contents .
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kaoo, kaō 花押 Kao official signature


周匝青木家古文書 - 武兵太の花押 (嘉永元年) 1848
- Look at more samples -
source : geocities.jp/ja3fen2/aoki_komonjo


- quote -
Kaō first appeared in China during the Tang Dynasty,
and began to be used in Japan during the Heian period.
Though their use became far less widespread after the Edo period, they continue to be used even by some contemporary politicians and other famous people. The reading and identification of individual kaō often requires specialist knowledge; whole books devoted to the topic have been published.
Often used by a Japanese swordsmith on sword tang (nakago).
- source : wikipedia -

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osumitsuki お墨付き, 御墨付き official document

An official document, ending with the Kao signature, given by the Shogun to a retainer when giving him a domain as a new regent or making other promises.

Now it is also an expression of approval.
taikoban o osu 太鼓判を押す stamp of approval





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- - - - - ABC List of the prefectures


............................................................................. Miyagi 宮城県
Matsushima 松島町

Inozaki Inari 磯崎稲荷 Inozaki Shrine - 花押

文禄の朝鮮の役(1592)に、磯崎の水主が伊達勢の水軍として高麗に渡ったが、磯崎稲荷も眷属の狐を従えて出陣したといい、肥前の名護屋に滞陣中、その中の1匹が淀君の侍女について侍女が病気になる。それを追い出そうとすると、「われこそは奥州松島は磯崎明神の眷属なるぞ」と力み返ったので、太閤大いに怒り、「汝早々に狐めを退散させずば、やわかそのままに差し置くべき」と、お叱り状に、稲荷太明神殿、太閤秀吉としたため、花押までつけて遣わしたので、狐も逃げ出し、侍女の病気も治ったという。このお叱り状は磯崎稲荷に長く伝えられていた。


............................................................................. Niigata 新潟県
Aga 阿賀町

kitsune 狐 Fox

德川時代、伊達政宗に滅ぼされたカナガニトウトオミノカミの遺臣淸野孫右衛門が漆沢集落に来て、肝煎になった。その五代目が武家復興を月山権現に念じて二十一日の願掛けをした。途中、痩せた狐の親子に赤飯を振る舞ってやった。満願の日、德川の家老オニコがお墨付きを持って迎えに来て、そのまま道中した。道中は犬止めの禁が出た。新発田街道を通って聖篭で夜が明けると、行列はなく槍だと思っていたのは萱であった。孫右衛門はそのまま落ち延び、息子ともう独り着いていったものは帰ってきた。

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Kao of Tokugawa, now even on a Zippo lighter!
ZIPPO 戦国武将 家紋・花押シリーズ 徳川家康

- source : amazon.co.jp -

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役者絵の花押にほふや枇杷の花
yakusha-e no kaoo niou ya biwa no hana

the signature of the actor's print
is so fragrant . . .
loquat blossoms


北川みよ子 Kawakami Miyoko

. biwa no hana 枇杷のはな (びわのはな) loquat blossoms .
- kigo for mid-winter -


source : tweez.net/ukiyoeota
五代目市川団十郎 Ichikawa Danjuro V

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遺言の末尾に花押初時雨
塚本邦雄

遠き祖の花押に憑かれ返り花
松本澄江

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- Reference - 花押 -
- Reference - 御墨付き -

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. tera-uke shoomon 寺請証文 Shomon document of proof from a temple.

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

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. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #kaosignature #osumitsuki #signature #taikoban -
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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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2016-04-10

Natural Disasters LIST

- BACK to the Daruma Museum -
. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .
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Natural Disasters and Legends 自然災害 伝説 shizen saigai
- Naturkatastrophe - desaster


There are many forms of natural disasters ever since human beings settled on the Islands of Japan.


source : roof-partner.com/natural-disaster
自然災害とは . . .

This is a growing list of legends and tales related to them.
- drought, earthquake, flooding, landslides, tsunami, typhoon, volcanic eruption -

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drought often followed by famine
. hideri 旱 kanbatsu 旱魃 drought .
旱 10 to explore
旱魃 93 to explore

. kikin 飢饉 great famine .


source : en.rocketnews24.com/2016/03/10

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. earthquake, jishin 地震 Legends about Earthquakes .
Earthquakes in Kumamoto, April, 2016


source : en.rocketnews24.com/2016/03/10

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floods, flooding
. koozui 洪水(こうずい)flood, flooding .


source : en.rocketnews24.com/2016/03/10


111 to explore
demizu 出水 17 to explore

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landslides, mudslides
. doshakuzure 土砂崩れ landslide legends .
gakekuzure 崖崩れ / jisuberi 地滑り
masago 土砂 (マサゴ) / dosha 土砂 earth and sand - for construction work

. dosha-kaji 土砂加持 ritual to prevent landslides .

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. tsunami 津波 Tsunami .
and the
Tohoku Region Pacific Ocean Offshore Earthquake March 11, 2011
.
1771 - Great Yaeyama Tsunami 八重山大津波 (also called 明和の大津波, the Great Tsunami of Meiwa)
.
yamatsunami 山津波 "mountain Tsunami", landslide

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typhoon
. taifuu 台風 typhoon, Taifun .

31 to explore


source : en.rocketnews24.com/2016/03/10

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volcanic eruption
. kazan 火山 volcano .
funka 噴火 10 to explore
kazan 火山 2 to explore
焼火山権現 2 to explore
火山弾 1 to explore

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Main volcanos in Kyushu . . . all in one line . . .
in extension of the
the Japanese Median Tectonic Line (MTL) (中央構造線 Chūō Kōzō Sen),
with respect to the strong quakes in Kumamoto in April 2016.


source : qbiz.jp/article

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- Reference - nichibun yokai database -


天下大変 -資料に見る江戸時代の災害 Tenka Taihen !
- reference : archives.go.jp/exhibition -

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. Legends - Heian Period (794 to 1185) - Introduction .

. Japanese legends and tales 伝説 民話 昔話 - Introduction .

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::



. Join the friends on Facebook ! .

- #naturaldisasters #disasters #desasters #naturkatastrophen -
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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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